بررسی ادبیات پورانه‌ای در دین و فرهنگ عامة هندو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

واحد علوم تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران

چکیده

این نوشتار به معرفی بخشی از ادبیات دینی هندویی معروف به ادبیات پورانه­ای می­پردازد که خود حجم قابل توجهی از متون دینی هندو را تشکیل می­دهد. ادبیات پورانه­ای در یک تقسیم­بندی شامل دو بخش اصلی است که هر کدام پورانه­های مختلفی را در بر می­گیرد: 1. مهاپورانه­ها یا پورانه­های بزرگ؛ 2. اوپه پورانه­ها یا پورانه­های کوچک. واژه «پورانه» به معنی «کهن» و «باستان» است و ادعای فرقه­های هندویی بر این است که این متون شأنی همسنگ وداهای چهارگانه داشته و به مثابه ودای پنجم مطرح­اند. این متون که عمدتاً حاصل ادبیات شفاهی و مربوط به طبقة شتریه­ها (کشتریا=جنگاوران) بوده­اند، انعکاسی از تاریخ، فرهنگ و دین عامه هندو بوده و برای شناخت آنها حائز اهمیت­اند و با توجه به شواهدی که در آنها وجود دارد از سوی محققان جزو ادبیات کلاسیک دانسته شده­اند. مهم­ترین بخش ادبیات پورانه­ای مهاپورانه­ها هستند که به سه دسته شش تایی تقسیم شده و هر گروه متعلق به یکی از سه فرقه اصلی هندو است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Purānic literature in Hindu’s popular culture and religion

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Sh
  • A M
چکیده [English]

This article aims to introduce a part of Hindu literature that constitute a considerable volume of Hindu sacred texts. Purānic literature is a division which includes two principal parts, each of them embraces several Purānas: Purānic literature can be divided into two main branches which each contains different purānas: 1. Mahāpurāna or Great Purānas, 2. Upapurānas or Secondary Purānas. Purāna literally means “old” “ancient”, and Hindu sects refer to purāna as the "fifth Veda" and give them a position equal with the fourfold Vedas. These texts which were derived from the oral literature and belonged to Kṣatriya caste(warriors), reflected Hinduʼs history, popular culture and religion.Considering Puranic literature structure some scholars suggest that they should be considered as classic literature. Of the many texts designated “Puranas” the most important are the Mahāpurāṇas or the major Purānas. These are said to be eighteen in number, divided into three groups of six, and each group belongs to one of the three major sects of Hinduism. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • puranic litrature
  • Hindu religion
  • Mahapurana
  • Upapurana

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