عنوان مقاله [English]
In the current era, with the emergence of computer phenomena and the ever-increasing scope of e-commerce, almost all of the countries in the commercial field have inevitably changed their traditional style to e-commerce by approving e-commerce laws in the international arena, including the UNCITRAL Law approved in 1996 and other similar laws, accepted the said laws or approving similar laws to the objectives of the global trade; it is to be regarded that the electronic contracts have certain characteristics, for example, the aforesaid contracts can be created in the form of data messages on the personal computer of each party to the contract, and this status is in contrast to the traditional contracts since a person may only create a message data on his own computer but he never sends the message data from the originator and personal computer, or if the it is sent, the contract party may not receive it, therefore, what is to be done in here?
In such cases, you should refer to the specific law of e-commerce; in the absence of such specific laws, you should refer to the general laws contained in other codes.
The Constitutional Law is the basis of the legal system of India, like the Iranian legal system. The Indian Constitutional Law was approved in 1949 and implemented since January 1950; since the time, it has been implemented with no major change. With the increasing development of the world, the two-parliamentary systems of that country have approved supplementary laws. (Mousavifard, Shahtaheri, 2016:9)
The Information Technology Act (ITACT), being ratified in 2000, is one of the aforesaid laws; this law is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law, which was the first Cyber Information Technology Act (in India) (Talib 2016: 66- 67); the e-commerce law in India is the same as the Information Technology Act (Krishan, 2015: 4).
In Iranian legal system, with the approval of the e-commerce act, similar to India, the laws of UNCITRAL have been accepted and set in force.
In the legal systems of the two countries, in case of silence and urgency, we should refer to other laws. The major question is that how much the basis and conditions of electronic contracts in Iran and India correspond to international trade documents?
Given the fact that the conclusion of electronic contracts in our country has not been having a long history and that successful business in the international community requires introduction to the laws governing such contracts and regarding that India has emerged successful in e-commerce, and that both countries follow the UNCITRAL laws, and that such codes have not been adequately addressed, there is a need to investigate and study these issues considering the following objectives:
1. Identifying the achievements of the international legal system of international trade based on the view of protecting electronic contracts and making them enforceable in the territory of the countries and clarifying the legal principles in Iran's governing law in order to identify electronic contracts and to reconcile the use of governing law and the competent court.
2. Research method
The research method in here is descriptive and comparative. Firstly, it is required to introduce and identify traditional and electronic contracts in terms of Iranian law, and then these types of contracts should be studied in the field of international trade. Toward gaining desired goals, the research steps are described as follows: First, there is a snapshot of the Persian books, papers articles and sources that exist in the domestic law. Then we took into consideration, translate and scan from legal sources in the field of international trade and India subject of the discussed issues.
The term "contract" is equivalent to "Contract in English" and "Contrat in French", and refers to an agreement between two or more persons (parties) regarding a subject with legal interest. (Firoozitabar 2015: 5)
According to Article 2 of the Electronic Commerce Law of Iran, it is stipulated that e-commerce services provide remote contracting between the supplier and the consumer using telecommunications.
And in accordance with the definition of the Article 14 of the Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), it refers to a specific person or certain persons for the purpose of concluding a contract, and it is completely, definitively and clearly showing their intentions to conclude contract and it will be enforceable for them if being accepted (Darabpour 1975: 186)
Acceptance in the word means admission. In the term, acceptance is consent to the requirement expressed for the conclusion of the contract (Ansari and Taheri, 2005: 1507)
The Article 3 of the UNCITRAL Convention 2005 recognizes the will of the parties in the form of declaration of intention and the nature of the contract. In Iran, the validity of the message has been validated in accordance with Articles 6 and 12 of the Electronic Commerce Act, and the use of it has been accepted as the base, and the Indian Information Technology Act in this regard is similar to the Iranian law. Therefore, in spite of the intention of the parties, a legal nature is formed under the contract.
According to e-commerce law for establishing a legal relationship in the electronic environment, the existence of the originator and the audience and the exchange of message data between them are required. However, pursuant to Para (b) and Para (c) of Article 2 of E-commerce Law, the purpose of these parties shall in no way include the person acting as intermediary in relation to the data of the message. The legislator shall assign the message data assignment to Originator in two cases and in accordance with Article 18:
(a) if originator or personally submitted to "Originator" as described below, authorized by the Originator.
(b) if authorized by the Information Programming System or by automated contracting, thus, in electronic contracts where the concessionary transactions are done automatically submitted by Originator. In fact, the computer as a tool under the control and will of the parties to the agreement, and with the addition of the terms of an electronic contract concluded and its effects will not be different from the traditional contracts, it may only be positive in the event of dispute between the parties.
1. Information Technology has provide the field for many business exchanges, transactions and services to be provided through the Internet to recognize new communication technologies in contract formation, the way they are formed and validated, the ability to assign electronic documents, the way payments are made electronically and etc. which are among the most important issues in this field in many countries, including Iran and India.
2. With regard to electronic contracts, with the adoption of the Electronic Commerce Act 2003 in Iran and the IT Law in India in 2000, these contracts are based on both the formation process and the nature of the law, unless otherwise explicitly provided by law. The necessary legal framework has been validated within the framework of the legal system of the two countries. Since our country's e-commerce law and the Indian IT law do not adequately address all the problems and ambiguities, so if necessary, it should seek the general laws, including civil law in Iran and the Indian contract law, to resolve the ambiguity and urgency.
3. Given that the Electronic Commerce Act of Iran and the Indian IT Law are derived from the UNCITRAL laws, the terms of validity of electronic contracts and the conclusion style of contracts are the same.
1-Abulhasan Mojahed,Osameh,properties of all electronic contracts ,Cairo,Daralnehza,2000
2.Ahani,batool. (2004). Formation of Electronic Contracts, Family Law and Jurisprudence Journal, No. 33 and 34. Summer and Fall, Pages 9-11.
3.Ansari, Masoud, Taheri, Mohammad Ali. (2005). Legal Dictionary, 4th ed. ,vol. 3, Tehran, Ghalam Publication Institute.
4.Darabpour, Ali. (1994). International sale Law, 1st ed. ,vol. 1, Tehran, Ganj-e-Danesh Publication Institute.
5.Elsan, Mostafa. (2005.). Contract Formation, Trade Research Quarterly, No. 36
6.Firoozitabar, Farajallah. (2016). International Contracts, International Law Journal, Vol. 39, Page 5.
7.FeyziChekab, GholamNabi. (2004). Time Formation by Contract through Electronic Bags, Articles of the Seminar on the Legal Aspects of Information Technology, Tehran, Salsebil,.
8. Katouzian, Nasser. (2007). Juristic acts, Tehran, Enteshar corporation, 12th ed.
9.Kavyar, Mir Hossein. (2008). Make an Appointment on International Electronic Contract in Newest Convention of UN, International Law Journal, Vol. 39, Pages 322-323.
10- Krishan, Radha, Law in online business with special focus on India, Hochschule Furtwangen University, 2015
11- Kayıhan, S/Yıldız, H, Elektronik Ticaretin Hukuki ve Vergi Boyutu, Seckin Yayıncılık, Ankara, s, 2004.
12.Langroudi, M. Jafari. (1990). Studies in Civil Law, Tehran, University of Tehran Press, Vol. 1 .
13. Langroudi, M. Jafari. (2006). Studies in Civil Law, Tehran, University of Tehran Press, Ganj-e-Danesh Publication Institute.
14.Maghaminia, Mohammad. (2012). Scientific-research biannual journal of Civil Law Knowledge Vol. 1, Issue 1, spring and Winter.
15-Mamduh Ebrahim,khaled,the confirmation of electronic contracts,Cairo,Daralfekr publication,2005
16.Moin, mohammad. (2003). Mo'in Encyclopedic Dictionary, 20th ed, vol. 2, Tehran, Amirkabir Publication Institute.
17.Mousavi Fard, Mohammadreza, Shahtaheri, Shabnam, (2016), Comparative Study of Legislative Systems in India and Iran, Third Global Conference on Psuchology and Educational Science of Third Millennium, Page 9.
18. Nouri, Mohammad Ali, Nakhjavani, Reza. (2003). E - Commerce law, Tehran, Gangedanesh library, 1st ed.
19.Rezaei, Ali. (2008). Electronic Commercial Law , 1st ed, Tehran, Mizan.
20.Safaee, S. Hossein, Qassemzadeh, S. Morteza. (2005) Civil Law, Tehran, Mizan, vol. 2, 3rd ed.
21.Shahidi, Mahdi. (2003). Formationof Contracts and Obligations, Tehran, Majd Scientific and Cultural Association, 3rd ed.
22.Shahidi, Mahdi. (2004). Civil Law, Tehran, Majd Scientific and Cultural Association, 2nd ed.
23-Talib, Saher Owais, E-commerce laws and regulations in India, International Journal of Multidisciolinary Research and Development, Volume 3 issue 4, 2016
24. The Indian Contract Act. (Act no.9 Of 1872).
25.The Information Technology Act. (no.21 of 2000).
26.Vesali Naseh, Morteza. (2006). Electronic Contract and its Validity Principle, Kanoon Journal, No. 66, January.