عنوان مقاله [English]
1-1. Problem statement and research questions
The life of sociology depends on the acceptance of existed "society". Sociological trends become baseless if there is not any imagination of existence of any society. Pierre Bourdieu was a sociologist who made serious effort for the inequality and added numerous concepts to the encyclopedia of social sciences such as the habitus, and cultural capital field. According to his view, all human beings are activist. Action is a practice which occurs in a field; and any field is where the potential and actual forces are exchanged with each other. To understand the meaning of artistic action, we should first understand the art field which is resulted from exchange of forces.
Expansiveness of the contemporary art and the plurality of artwork in the public field are the consequences of development and culture of consumerism in the Capitalist System. The present study sought to scrutinize the status of artwork in the urban space by focusing on the Anish Kapoor's works as one of the most prominent "Public art" artists in the last few decades. Recognition of forces, which affect the creation and plurality of urban sculptures, is the most important issue.
1-2- Research objectives and necessity
Nowadays, what the public is getting about the art is basically from perspective of media on the art, and the language of those who desire to invest in the art. These transfer and reception in artistic action with a global approach have roots in the social transformation of today's world. The present study aimed to achieve a sociological investigation of forces of the contemporary art field.
2- Research method
The conceptual scope of the research literature was initially determined by providing a definition of Pierre Bourdieu's theory and his methodology about bipolar art and sociology, and then we briefly explained the most important forces and institutions of contemporary art. Afterwards, we studied the complex origin of the new capitalist system and the reasons for plurality of artwork in the public domain by describing the public art indices in analysis of Anish Kapoor's works.
Public art and the presence of sculptures in urban spaces
In 1976, the inclusion of art in urban spaces was considered as a business, and new cities were obvious examples of this field. Publication of the "Art and City" work by the initiative of the General Secretariat of new French cities was the construction richness at that time. The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the importance of using sculptors and painters' works, and in general, the presence of artistic works in the city. Generally, the "art" (urban art) term includes all the arts which are designed by specific planning and purposes for a certain urban area. Public art can cover any artwork. These works should try to increase the audiences' visual literacy and a sense of aesthetics in addition to utilization of aesthetic and artistic features due to being in places where there are not only the specific audiences, but the masses of people (Archer, 2009, 187). Urban art can be converted to a social structure due to its totally public texture and diverse audiences.
The existing reality eliminates the life failures, suppressions and limitations in the relations of the capitalist society. Contemporary art covers up the limitations of society in a neoliberal system by misrepresenting the social reality through representation of a free and cheerful activity. On the other hand, the relation and interaction with the "mass culture" and the elements of consumer life, rather than interaction with the real affair, refer to the perception in the contemporary art as the interaction with a "real affair" or real life. (Stallabrass, 2010, 44)
The economic globalization refers to the general and fundamental concern which does not have anything to do with aesthetic components, and it perceives the art as a set of commercial goods which can be potentially invested. Nowadays, the globalization has increased the wealth of middle classes and created better economic and technological entrepreneurial units which have covered these gaps. Immigrant artists were forced to have certain cultural life leading to the malformed nature of their works. However, these artists began to change the taste and traditions of the metropolitan European-American environment with a postcolonial background and this made anxiety about their assignment. Kapoor called himself "Mr. Intermediate". His work has coincided with the globalization era when the old national structures, which were strengthened during the imperialism and colonialism periods, are now transformed by immigration of mass population and authenticity of free flow of trade and communications. However, such these dramatic changes motivate the reverse identity-based attitudes which sometimes result in the problematic consequences.
Sociology measures the art of relationship between the artistic products and social phenomena. This study is direct, hidden, symbolic, and comparative study, and paves the way for conducting research on the measurement of social effectiveness, analysis on artistic phenomena and assessment of necessary presence of artwork. Introducing the field concept and describing different types of capital, Pierre Bourdieu considered the art field as the self- governing reflection of social changes. According to him, this new paradigm of society has prioritized world-class authority structures, the relationships between governments and globalization processes in the field of economics, politics, culture and communications, and transnational and class identities. Nowadays, the globalization and models are among the most effective forces in the cultural revolution of contemporary society and new social movements in the West, and they are among the stages of emergence and expansion of the capitalist system.
Development and transformation in the contemporary art are like thefull-length mirrors of permanent development in the capitalist system. The unrelenting changes and combination of signs and borderless destruction of boundaries indicate the weak forms of dominant system. The totality of the contemporary art manifestation, or the combination of cultural elements, is the dream of global capitalism which is valued by the most important capitalist system components namely the "consumption" and "constant development". "Public art", which can be defined within the field of contemporary art, gradually becomes a component of the development and civilization, and provides the basis for presence of the urban sculptures. Like all other cultural products which are built for capital economy, the art is only considered as a commodity.
Anish Kapoor's the recent collection is the best place to see the interaction of contemporary art object and the plurality of sculptures in the public arena. Wonder and fantasy are the keywords for understanding the Kapoor's works. Colors are shocking and shapes are strange. The use of doubt and mystery is the highly-tested technique of the contemporary art. Therefore, Kapoor uses this method at new scales to attract the audiences' attention, and presents his works for the public in line with the capitalist system and its characteristics. In Kapoor's works, most of applied materials show audiences the Eastern roots and Hindu rituals along with the abstract fanciful volumes, and more importantly, the artist's originality. The capitalist system insists and confirms that in today's world, the art is a phenomenon which is led by the market and does not consider the quality or prominence of the artwork as the main determinants. Sometimes, the market demands are not along with the artists' inner tendencies; and the artists create the artwork by astounding creativities, cleverness and innovation with regard to the environmental characteristics, features, materials and characteristics of modern art and capitalism of plurality.
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