عنوان مقاله [English]
There are three basic stages in human bio-life that include birth, marriage and death. The form of holding these ceremonies is different in each society, although inevitable similarities may be seen in two different societies. These steps are customary in all societies and lands. The ethnographic and comparative study of marriage patterns in the two lands of Iran and India, which have many common cultural and historical backgrounds, has not been done so far and the place of such research is empty.
Today necessity to know culture and civilization of own and discovery of their origin is obvious for all. As this matter is considered as soft power components. Even those countries which has less cultural backgrounds are trying to find their cultural origins. On this basis discovery and to know this cultural background and to find segregation forms and their unity with other nations are the necessities which the article tries to do it. Especially this necessity in both civilizations which is connected from long back is multiple.
According to this necessity, the main goal of this article is to research anthropologically the marriage ceremonies in Iran and India. In this way in the article two nations are comparatively compared, till the segregation forms and their unity to be cleared.
2- Research methodology
Using the experiences and observations of the authors and using existing valid sources, as well as collecting information by library method and analyzing and criticizing them, is the method of research in this paper. By using this method, it is expected that the roots of cultural and common affinities between Iranians and Indians, on the one hand, and showing the common points or differentiation in the marriage patterns in these two lands, on the other hand, are to be clarified.
The origins and dates of cultural relations between Iran and India should be sought during the period of the Aryan peoples' migration to Iran and the Indian subcontinent. When the Aryan tribes were looking for more and more pasture and nutrition resources, and the cold lands of the Caucasus Mountains had hardened their lives, they would inevitably migrate to the southern territories. A group of them went to Iran, and another one went to the eastern territories and then entered India.
What has been considered in this paper is the study of the aspects of sharing and analyzing the roots of consistency between these two cultures in this issue. The search for the common roots of these rituals and their ethnological analysis in these two countries, as well as the proximity of the form and content of their holding in the two lands of Iran and India, is a new look that this paper tries to do it. The ultimate goal of this study, in addition to answering the main question and finding the assumptions of this research, is to familiarize the peoples of the two communities with their contributions to one of the greatest common traditions (marriage).
In Iran according to environmental conditions, values and social habitude, the form of family and marriage are different. Historical and anthropological researches show that marriage and kinship had organized forms in Iran from long back. For some reasons like full blood or marriage people believed as relatives to each other and according to this kinship, restriction and boundaries they used to plan. In 1877 Lewis Henry Morgan with observation on priority of matrilineal against patrilineal systems concluded that after promiscuity which had in the begging a series of sexual relation restrictions between parents and children and after that between sisters and brothers were applicable. (Rouholamini M.1995.P.793). Iranian marriage ceremonies can be divided into two parts: one is related to marriage and the other one is related to wedding.
In India although people have different believes in tradition and rite and ceremonies of marriage but marriage institution among all Indians and other religions are unit, and in this connection marriage in most religious texts of India is considered as religious act. In general in India marriage ceremony is divided into two parts: first part is engagement ceremony which is called as Kormaay and second part is wedding ceremony which is called Lavan or Lava. In fact, the only thing which legitimate to sikh’s unity is this permission against holy book. After that bride and bridegroom start living together. Therefore, bride along bridegroom leave the father’s house and shifts to husband’s house. (Bajpai, 2011: 73-74; Sikh wedding booklets, 2015)
It is supposed that as a result of the Aryans migrated to southern territories, both large groups of immigrants who had common traditions and customs maintained the same rites and traditions in the territory of the new land and spread even among the indigenous peoples. Hence, the inevitable parallels and similarities between the marriages of Iranians and Indians up to today preserved their shape to a large extent, although the millennial in the ups and downs of history passed bitter and sweet stories in these two lands. Therefore, the reasons for the common cultural and historical aspects of these two territories should be found in the ethnic, racial, territorial, historical, mythological and religious roots of the Aryan tribes, who lived together for years and were forced to migrate and separated from each other in the second millennium BC.
Despite the differences and varieties on marriage ceremonies in Iran and India we can list here, some common trait and components.
1- Continuity of marriage and establishment of family in Iranian culture.
2- Fidelity to principle, believes and denegation of iconoclasm both in mate selection and performing marriage ceremony.
3- The axial family role specially father in mate selection.
4- Participation and cooperation.
5- Moving from extended family towards the nuclear family.
6- Endogamy marriage.
By performing this research we can conclude that in case of importance of establishment of family, manner and rituals in marriage ceremony, gifts, guest invitation and commemorations. They are many similarity and unity in marriage ceremonies in Iran and India which can provide a good cultural diplomacy in both countries.
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