عنوان مقاله [English]
Afghanistan as an important country in strategic middle east area, which is in neighborhood of Iran and India, has many appropriate potentialities for promoting collaborations between two country, so planning and collaboration between Iran and India on common issues whether security or using economic potentials may lead to proximity between these two countries more than before. So by taking attention to this neighborhood and existence of extensive potentials in Afghanistan are, this question arises that: which role and position may Afghanistan have in strategic relationships between Iran and India? The hypothesis of this article says it seems that Afghanistan by taking attention to present circumstances in this country in many aspects including security, political and economic may have very important and effective role on enhancing the relationships between Iran and India and their collaboration and convergence.
Regional cooperation always is one of the most fundamental factors in connection between neighborhood countries and increasing the sense of trust and good neighborhood between them. So recognizing potentials and cooperation and convergence contexts may create strong links at the region level between existing countries, and also could prevent from the influence of trans-regional powers like United States of America in this strategic area, and may help in using high potentials of the area in its own benefits.
So whatever the countries of middle east and south of Asia have more accurate and comprehensive information about internal potentials of each other, they could play more effective role in addressing needs and decreasing costs and increasing national interests of each other. So for this important purpose, current article aims to evaluate the existing opportunities and threats in Afghanistan which Iran and India have common opinion and understanding about them, and also open the doors of increasing cooperation between them and make regional cooperation more strong.
2- Descriptive Method of Research
The used method in this research designed by taking attention to its theoretical nature, is qualitative based on analytical descriptive approach, which used the case study technique. The case study technique is a method which used for systematic evaluation of individuals, groups, organizations, movements or events, and its researcher needs understanding and describing phenomena ( Wimer, Dominic, 2005: 200). Also in qualitative research method, the data and information from historical, descriptive and experimental researches are used. Quality oriented researchers are trying to understand the situation of complex political and social processes (Hafez nia, 2011: 38). The required information for this research collected and used using library and internet resources.
One the topics which may help in convergence and regional collaboration between Iran and India and may strengthen the relationships may be the subject of Afghanistan and collaborations between Tehran and New-Delhi on several issues in this country. Iran and India have many and mutual interests in Afghanistan, which elevated contacts and communication between them in recent years. Specially common threats from religious radical groups including ISIS, Taliban and etc. are existed and officials of two countries have common ideas for confronting with these groups (Simbor, Bahrami Moghaddam, 2015: 56).
India always worried about motions and actions of fundamentalist extremist groups especially in its conflict zone by Pakistan, meaning Muslim area of Kashmir and Jammu. Since there is a complex and meaningful relationship between Pakistan and fundamentalist groups like Taliban which deployed in Pakistan and Afghanistan in Indian peninsula, and also arrival of ISIS dependent forces in Afghanistan, which in belief of many analyzers are in support of Pakistan’s security system; so this country have serious inclination for cooperation with Iran, in such a way that use Iran’s very good potentials for confronting with these extremist groups and defeating or limiting them in Pakistan and Afghanistan (Shafiee, Eskandarit, 2011: 37).
India and Iran are members of Shanghai Treaty, and India always emphasizes on role of Iran in relax and stability of Afghanistan. Influence of Iran in Afghanistan based on cultural bases, awareness of issues of this country, friendly relationships with central government of Afghanistan and Mujahedin groups and tribal leaders are known to all countries including India. India needs the aid of Iran for controlling extremist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan, which once in a while infiltrate in its borders and by making suicidal or military operations make Indian officials disturbed; and India only by aid of Iran could reach to its interests on this subject, especially because Iran and India both look at ISIS, Taliban and Alqaida as terrorist organizations.
Furthermore there is very good potentials in Afghanistan including economic, business, mine and natural subjects which could provide collaboration conditions for mutual investment in Afghanistan and using its desired markets (Modeer shane chy , 2011).
Strategic position of Afghanistan, its situation in linking area between south of Asia and central Asia, presence and activity of religious radical groups including ISIS, Taliban and sometimes Alqaida in this country and neighborhood with Pakistan, and on the other hand mass production of drugs and extended presence of ultra-regional forces in this country and very suitable potential of Afghanistan in economic and transit issues, make Afghanistan the spotlight of Iran and Idia; and they concluded that many economic, political and security issues of them will be solved via Afghanistan and then using mutual collaborations between two country.
So officials of Iran and India as two effective and strong countries which everyone of them have important potentials of power in regional level, in recent years concluded that by collaboration could exclude the potential threats of Afghanistan, and suitably use current potentials for their national interests; and one of the main ways of doing this is investing in Afghanistan and helping in removing issues and structural problems of Afghanistan’s economy. So these two countries could using interaction with each other and then getting the trust of Afghan officials, first could solve many security issues in regional level, and second gain many interests in economic and transit dimensions, and third prevent from continuing presence and influence of ultra-regional forces in this country.
Of course it could be said that after the above discussions, political and economic collaborations between Iran and India in subject of facing with regional issues especially in Afghanistan and Pakistan was not completely shaped, because of recent international cooperation of India (especially with US and Israel), India’s doubts in region, type of foreign policy of India, and its political parties and ruling groups.
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