ارتباط نقشبندیۀ شبه قاره با نقشبندیۀ کردستان و پراکندگی آن ها در امپراتوری عثمانی (نیمه نخست سده 19م)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار تاریخ دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

هندوستان از زمان خواجه مؤیدالدین محمد باقی (971 ـ 1012 ه.ق) تا بعد از وفات شاه غلام­علی عبدالله دهلوی (1240 ه.ق) مرکز طریقت نقشبندیه محسوب می­شد. اغلب شیوخ و خلفای نام­آور برای کسب سلوک در محضر مرشد کامل عازم این دیار می­شدند. از آن سو، بررسی­ها نشان می­دهد که در کردستان در ابتدای قرن نوزدهم میلادی، طریقت نقشبندیه بر خلاف طریقت قادریه، طریقتی شناخته شده نبود. در نیمه نخست قرن مذکور، مولانا خالد شهرزوری و تعدادی دیگر از کردها عازم هندوستان شدند و مراحل سلوک طریقت نقشبندیه را طی کرده، اجازه ارشاد از مرشد اعظم دریافت نمودند و به موطن خویش بازگشتند. این مقاله با استفاده از روش تحقیق تاریخی با رویکرد توصیفی ـ تحلیلی به بررسی نقش و رابطه مرشد کامل طریقت نقشبندیه مجددیه در هندوستان در شکل­گیری این طریقت در کردستان و چگونگی پراکندگی آن در امپراتوری عثمانی می­پردازد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می­دهد که مولانا خالد توانست با جذب بسیاری از بزرگان طریقت قادریه، تعدادی از علمای دینی، فضلا و دولتمردان عثمانی، طریقت نقشبندیه را به جایگاه رفیعی در کردستان و در قلمرو امپراتوری عثمانی برساند. نقش برجسته مولانا خالد و خلفای او در گسترش سریع شبکه طریقت خویش باعث شد که پس از مرگ شاه غلام­علی عبدالله دهلوی، مرکزیت طریقت نقشبندیه از هندوستان به عثمانی انتقال یابد و شاخه خالدیه در این طریقت شکل­گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship of the Naqshbandî order in Kurdistan with that order in India and its distribution in the Ottoman Empire (the first half of 19th century)

نویسنده [English]

  • nezamali Dehnavai
Assistant Professor of History at the University of Payam Noor
چکیده [English]

Extensive Abstract:
    The Naqshbandî lineage in Kurdistan was not influential and well known in the beginning of the 19th century, whereas, the Qâdirî in Kurdistan had a lot of influence in that region. The Naqshbandî lineage was active in some areas in the Ottoman Empire such as Istanbul, Mecca, and Medina, but the main center of his lineage was in India on that time. In India, the great leader, Abdullah Dihlawî, known as Shâh Ghulâm ‘Alî, sent his caliphs to different regions of Islamic world,, one of them was Mîrzâ Abdul Rahîm, entered Kurdistan and brought Mawlânâ Khâlid, who had been studying contemplative and narrated Islamic Sciences and had  permission to guide in Qâdirî lineage with himself to India in 1224 AH. To meet great leader of the Naqshbandî lineage Shâh Ghulâm ‘Alî. Mawlânâ Khâlid was in India with Dihlawî for nearly one year and then he received permission to guide disciples in Cheshtî, Kubrawî, Suhrawardî, Qâdirî and Naqshbandî lineage. Additionally, he received permission from Shâh Abd-ul –Aziz Muhaddith (d.1823 in Delhi) to receive the Hadith from the six Canonical Sonni Hadith Collections.
       Since 1226 A.H. and after the return of Mawlânâ Khâlid to Kurdistan, the Naqshbandî lineage became active in Kurdistan and acquired prominent situation among people as well as the Bâbân rulers due to extensive effort of Mawlânâ Khâlid and his caliphs. Documents analysis reveals that Mawlânâ Khâlid was active in both branches of "Sharia" and "Tariqat" simultaneously. Mawlânâ Khâlid was supermen leader of Naqshbandî lineage on that time, more ever, he was also prominent pious, expert orator, and, famous poet, and generally he was distinguished in both field of contemplative and narrated sciences. He taught his disciples commentary and Hadith as well as comportment way in Sulaimani, Baghdad and Damascus. The caliphs of Mawlânâ Khâlid were the main reason for increasing his power to distribute his lineage which some of them had had previous experience in the fields of religious jurisprudence, commentary and Hadith, and some of them had been teaching for years.
Joining of some grandees and Shaikhes of Qâdirî lineage to Naqshbandî Mujjadadî Khâlîdî lineage in Kurdistan, Levant and other parts of Islamic World in addition to the charismatic leadership of Mawlânâ Khâlid played an important role in the rapid distribution and expansion of this lineage in the Ottoman Empire territory, especially in Kurdistan.  Because of huge influence of Naqshbandî lineage in Kurdistan, some Qâdirî Sheikhs, especially in the Bâbân Emirate region found them selves to be cornered and started confrontation with Mawlânâ Khâlid. As a result of the confrontation with Qâdirî,s Sheikhs, and also because of political conflicts among the ruling Bâbân family, Mawlânâ forsook Sulaimaniyah and moved to Baghdad.
From the first entrance of Mawlânâ  to Baghdad to Sulaymaniyah in 1228 A.H. till the second travel of him to Baghdad in 1236 A.H. his    تکیه   in Sulaimaniyah witnessed the presence of many disciples from different regions of Islamic World such as Mecca, Medina, Bethlehem, Damascus, Aleppo, Shemydinan, Mardin, Urfa, Diyarbakir, Afghanistan, Dagestan, Transoxina, Egypt, Oman and Morocco. This intensive presence of Mawlânâ Khâlid disciples had close relationship with the activities of some notable scholars such as Seyyed Asad Sadr al-Din Heidarî, Seyyed Sabaghollah Heidarî, Seyyed Obeid Allah Heidarî, Allameh Yahyâ Mazury Emadî, Allameh Abdulrahman Ruzbehanî, Allâmeh Abdollâh Jalî, Faqîh Sheikh Osmân, Sirâjdin Tvilhayy and Mullâh Mustâfâ the second presence of Mawlânâ in Baghdad,
The political and cultural capital of Iraq did not reduce the range of cultural and propagandistic activities of him, contrary this city became the main and his traditions, but has become a major center for his lineage and many grandees from the all parts of Islamic world gathered there around him. The constant growth of the fame and reputation of Mawlânâ Khâlid led to that some political and religious leaders in Damascus invited him to this city. Finally, Mawlânâ accepted their invitation and moved to Damascus with a lot of his caliphs and disciples in 1238 H.A.
Mawlânâ Khâlid stayed in Damascus for four years and during this period, in collaboration with his Caliphs, trained notable caliphs. He appointed some of his famose caliphs in mosques and religions schools for teaching and guidance of people, and the influence and reputation of Naqshbandî lineage enhanced enormously, to the extent some distinguished people from North Africa and the other Islamic areas had been guided by him and his caliphs, among them Sayyed Abdul Qâdir al-Jazâyerî one of the most prominent Algerian campaigner
Spatial context for guidance and education in the two areas of "Sharia" and "Tariqat", and the emphasis on the priority of the "Sharia" played a fundamental role in the development of the aforementioned lineage. The selection of strategic and outstanding political, religious and economic place like Sulaimaniyah, the capital of the Bâbân Kurdish Emirate, Baghdad, the main center of the Ottoman Empire in Iraq, Damascus, the capital of the Levant, Istanbul, Baytulmuqqads, the firs kiblah (qiblah) of the Muslims, Mecca, Medina and the other locations for the presence of caliphs and attendance of caliphs indicated to a logical selection. Role and the character of Mawlânâ Khâlid in the quantitative and qualitative development of the to Naqshbandî Mujjadadî lineage was so valuable that after him a branch known as Khâlidî was formed and till now is the largest and most distributed lineage in the Western part of the Islamic world.
Developments in the political structure of the Ottoman Empire toward of more centralization and elimination of the Janissaries and their intellectual supporters, the Bektashi from bureaucratic system in Istanbul, provided a suitable ground for Naqshbandî,s disciples for gradual infiltrating into intellectual and bureaucratic system of the Ottoman Empire. Mawlânâ Khâlid, the super me preceptor of the Naqshbandî Mujjadadî lineage in Ottoman Empire, with his notable Caliphs could use this appropriate political and social conditions for extending their thoughts.
This research uses historical research method and relying on an analytical descriptive approach to investigate the role and relationship of the full leader of the Naqshbandî Mujjadadî lineage in India in shaping this trend in Kurdistan and how it is dispersed in the Ottoman Empire. The findings show that Mawlânâ Khâlid, with the attraction of many of the elders, scholars of various sciences and Ottoman rulers was able to bring Naqshbandî lineage to the righteous position in Kurdistan as well as the entire territory of the Ottoman Empire. The prominent role of Mawlânâ Khâlid and her caliphs in the rapid expansion of their network order led to the transfer of the Naqshbandî lineage from India to Ottoman after the death of Shâh Ghulâm ‘Alî Dihlawî, and the branch of Khâlidî would be formed in this way. Although the propaganda discourse of Mawlânâ Khâlid and his Caliphs was not antagonistic to the ruling, shortly after his death, this lineage was turn into colonialist discourse and, in some areas, became antagonistic.
 
Keywords: Naqshbandî lineage, Sufism, Kurdistan, Mawlânâ Khâlid Shahzourî,     India, Ottoman Empire.         
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sufi Naqshbandi
  • Maulana Khalid Shar Zuri
  • India
  • Kurdistan
  • Ottoman