رویکرد اکبرشاه گورکانی به شعر فارسی و شاعران فارسی سُرای شبه قاره هند (با تکیه بر غزالی مشهدی، فیضی فیاضی، عرفی شیرازی، نظیری نیشابوری و قاسم کاهی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور

2 استاد زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

نیمه دوّم قرن دهم هجری، در شبه قارّه­ی هند، مقارن است با دوران حکومت اکبرشاه گورکانی که به اذعان قریب به اتّفاقِ محققّان، دوران اوجِ رواج زبان و ادب فارسی در آن سرزمین بوده است. محققان عوامل سیاسی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی بسیاری را در این اوج‌گیری موثر دانسته‌اند. مقاله حاضر با هدف بررسی هر چه دقیق‌تر سرگذشت زبان و ادب فارسی در شبه قاره هند، با روش توصیفی‌تحلیلی و بر اساس منابع کتابخانه‌ای، به بررسی رویکرد اکبرشاه گورکانی به شعر فارسی و شاعران فارسی سُرا و نقش موثر وی در رواج روزافزون این دو مقوله در شبه قاره هند پرداخته و بنابراین، ابتدا براساس منابع معتبر تاریخی، رویکرد اکبرشاه گورکانی به شعر و شاعران فارسی‌سُرا را بررسی کرده و سپس در جهت اثبات هر چه بیشتر موضوع، نمودهای این مضمون را از منظر سروده‌های پنج شاعر برجسته‌ی این قرن، یعنی غزالی مشهدی، فیضی فیاضی، عرفی شیرازی، نظیری نیشابوری و قاسم کاهی واکاوی و ارایه کرده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که بیش از هر عامل دیگری، پیشینه‌ی فرهنگی‌ادبی اکبرشاه، تسلط وی به فرهنگ و زبان فارسی، سخن‌دانی، سخن‌سنجی، علاقه و در نهایت توجه ویژه و مستقیم او به شعر فارسی و شاعران فارسی‌سُرا از عوامل اصلی رواج زبان و ادب فارسی در شبه قاره آن عصر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Akbarshah Gvrkany's Approach to Persian Poetry and Farsi Poets in the Indian Subcontinent(Based on Ghazali Mashhadi, Feizi Fayyazi,Orfi Shirazi, Nazari Nishabouri and Qasem Kahi)

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh sadeghinaghdalioliya 1
  • Nasrolah Emami 2
1 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature Payame Noor University
2 Professor of Language and Literature in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract:
 
1-      Introduction
After Akbar Shah's accession to the throne In the Great Mongol Dynasty during 1556- 1605, as acknowledged by almost all researchers, the star of Persian poetry flaunts beyond the borders of Iran and it also initiated in the Indian subcontinent. Historians and researchers believe that his50   years kingdom period was heyday and upsurge of Persian language and literature and showing of Iranian culture and civilization in that land.  Researchers consider many political, social, and cultural factors to be effective in such upsurge. The purpose of the current study is to analyze the history of Persian language and literature in the Indian subcontinent by focusing on the approach of Akbar Shah Gvrkany to Persian poetry and poems and his effective role in the prevalence of that in the Indian subcontinent. In this regard, we should find an answer for this fundamental question: What is the role of Akbar Shah Gvrkany in the prevalence of Persian poetry and poetry in the Indian subcontinent during the second half of the tenth century?
 
2-      Research methodology
This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical and content analysis methods. In this way that, first, using authentic historical sources, we investigate Akbar Shah Gvrkany's approach to Persian poetry and Persian poets and then, in order to prove more and more of the subject, the manifestations of this theme from the perspective of the poems of the five prominent poets who lived in 10th century, namely, Ghazali , Feizi, Orfi, Naziri and Kahi has reviewed and presented.
 
3-      Discussion
The second half of the tenth century, coincided with the rule of Akbar Shah Gvrkany, was the golden age of Persian poem and poetry in the Indian subcontinent. Undoubtedly, the fertility of Persian poetry and literature, inspired by the kings and princes of Timurid which began from reign of Mirza Shahrokh (Farhani Monfared, 2003: 69, Safa, 1999: 4/39 ) and his son Mirza Baysonqor (Parsaye Aghdas, 1986: 44) and during the reign of Sultan Hussein Baqrah at Herat literary and artistic center, reached perfection and resumed it position with the coming of Jalal al-Din Mohammad Akbarshah. Although Akbar did not literally read and write, but in recognition of many historical books and according to his contemporary notices, including Allami in Akbarnameh, it is clear that he knew Persian quite good and was familiar with the works of great poets, like Hafez and Molavi, he even wrote poetry in this language (Badayuoni, 2001: 2/186). Akbar's interest in poetry, especially Persian poetry, was as much that took poets with him in his recreational and war trips e.g. Badayouni while describing the departure of Akbar to conquer Bengal wrote “during day, he went out of the boat for hunting and tour and in night he attended in talk about science, poetry, reminders and repetitions.” (Badayuoni, 2001: 2/120). Sometimes the poets presented their own occasional poems to him during the journey (Heravi, 1927: 2/336). Through historical evidence, it is easy to find the valuable traditions of Akbarshahi and observe that how in the poetic tradition, he gave the government of a district to a poet (Heravi, 1927: 2/337). At the end of his reign, Akbar focused his attention on poetry and literature, and he trained many literature scholars and poets. His first, most important and most effective move on this path was to create the position of Malek ol-Shoara'i for the first time in the Indian subcontinent. Ghazali Mashhadi, an Iranian immigrant poet, was the first who succeeded in achieving this status (Ghandehari, 1962: 132). After him, this position given to a Hindu origin poet, but Farsi teller, known as Feyzi Fayyazi. In addition to his passion for poetry, Akbar also respected Persian poets highly, and the poets had a special place in his court, as sometimes, in addition to the position of the poet, poets took over the offices of the state. Akbar used poets more as the ambassador and representative (Badayuoni, 2001: 2/186). Akbar was very obsessed with Farsi Language and literature and, it made all the grandee before him from Mirza Abdo-l-rahim Khane Khanan, who was his greatest Marshal, to his subordinate kings and emirs in Kandahar, Kabul, and Sindh attempted for training and keeping Farsi teller conversationalists, to the point that Abdo-l-rahim Khane Khanan competed with Akbar shah in encouragement and support of the poets and scholars (Nafisi, 1929: 615). As a matter of fact, Akbar shah’s greatest virtue was Farsi teller conversationalist’s encouragement and respect, and granting them great assets and blessing. This commendable action was the main reason of attracting Farsi tellers of Iran and India to him and also a great motive in persuading talented of the era to dedicate their lives to Farsi literature and poetry. In general, Akbar shah’s oration and passion for poetry, constitution of poetry-reciting meetings, creating the position of Malek ol-Shoara, attributing responsibilities and positions to the poets and finally generosity and gift offering were the main factors that made Farsi poetry distributed in the subcontinent of Akbar shah era.
4-      Conclusion
Although the Persian language and literature has always had valuable position as an official language of the reign from its entrance to the Indian subcontinent especially during Muslim states who ruled before Mughal dynasty and then it was also the official language during the reign of Baber and Homayoun Gvrkany, undoubtedly the apex of its prevalence in the subcontinent was in the second half of the tenth Hijri century concurrent with the reign of the third king of Great Mughal dynasty-that is Akbar Shah Gvrkany. Akbar had a strong cultural background; his mother was from Iran and his unique agent Beiram Khane khanan was also a full-scale Iranian. Therefore; from the beginning of his reign he had a strange interest to spread the Persian language and literature to the point that historians believe that he was more interested in Persian language than Turkish language which was his ancestors' language. Through historical books most of which recorded daily events in Akbar' court we find out that except from political, social, and cultural factors, Akbar's positive attitude, special attention, and immense support of poetry and poesy were the main factor for the development of Persian language and literature. It's manifestation is realized in recognizing Persian language as the formal language in Akbarshah's territory, his companionship and his proximity with poets in all situations, their  always being accepted in his court, appointing poets to important and sensitive jobs, and finally creating the post of poet laureate. In addition to the first hand historical resources, the results of examining the poetic evidence suggests that Akbarshah's eloquence  and rhetoric as well as his immense interest and attention to the poets and poetry especially Persian poets and poetry were the main factors for ascending the Persian poet and poetry in the subcontinent in his time.
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Indian subcontinent
  • Akbar shah Gvrkany
  • Persian Poem and poetry