عنوان مقاله [English]
Hassan Dehlawi is of prominent Persian poets of India in 7th and 8th solar centuries. His fame is mainly drawn upon his lyrics wherein metaphor is used to create dynamic and extensive images due to his extensive imagination. Metaphor enables the poets to repeat the same meaning in various phrases in a way that there is no trace of repetition. It instead adds to the strength of the phrase. Heart is one of the concepts used frequently in the poems of Hassan Dehlawi. The conceptualization of heart in body is in direct connection with understanding the mind and is generally perceived via metaphor. Therefore, the relation of body organs to each other particularly the relation of heart with the other body organs are aptly depicted through metaphor.
Heart as a central part of human body is of significance. Studying the conceptualizations that was made in Persian language shown that most of it occurs in this organ; Heart plays more important role in such conceptualizations than the other organs.
Heart as a means of attaining theism has always been under the focus of poets and the mystics. Heart is the essence of existence, divine elegance, and the spiritual place of human body and also known as the center of divine knowledge and love. This research is conducted to investigate the relation of heart conceptualization with other body organs in the lyrics of Hassan Dehlawi based upon the contemporary theory of metaphor. Metaphor occurs on substitution axis due to the selection of a linguistic sign instead of the other sign in terms of similarity; the selected unit in addition to keeping the original concept would also achieve a secondary concept. In fact, metaphor is a means through which the conceptions of experimental domain are perceived in terms of other domains. In cognitive linguistics, using human body and organs is taken into serious consideration as a source for cultural conceptualization of everyday concepts.
This is a descriptive-analytic study based upon the conceptions of the contemporary theory of metaphor or conceptual metaphor. The conceptualization of heart in body is in direct connection with understanding the mind and is generally perceived via metaphor. In the cognitive linguistic view, metaphor is defined as one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. A conventional shorthand way of capturing this view of metaphor is the following: conceptual domain A is conceptual domain B, that is called a conceptual metaphor. A conceptual metaphor consists of two conceptual domains, in which one domain is understood in terms of another. Acccording to cognitive linguistics, three kinds of conceptual metaphor have been distinguished: structural, ontological and orientational. In structural metaphor, the source domain provides a relatively rich knowledge structure for the target concept. In other words, the cognitive function of these metaphors is to enable speakers to understand target A by means of the structure of source B. Ontological metaphors provide much less cognitive structuring for target concepts than structural ones do. Their cognitive job seems to be to merely give a new ontological status to general categories of abstract target concepts and to bring about new abstract entitie. Orientational metaphors provide even less conceptual structure for target concepts of than ontological ones. Their cognitive job, instead, is to make a set of target concepts coherent in our conceptual system.
Heart as a central body organ is of significance. This research is conducted to investigate the relation of heart conceptualization with other body organs in the lyrics of Hassan Dehlawi.
The present study is to respond to this fundamental question that which of the structural, ontological, and orientational kinds of conceptual metaphor are used in conceptualizations of heart in relation with other body organs in the lyrics of Hassan Dehlawi.
The findings of this study demonstrate that the contemporary theory of metaphor is a right means to describe the relation of heart with the other body organs in the lyrics of Hassan Dehlawi. Studying the available metaphors showed that Dehlawi used many kinds of ontological metaphors to describe the relation of heart with other body organs. The metaphors of “body organ is object/particle”, “body organ is human”, and “body organ is vessel” played a very important role in this conceptualization.
In so doing, each of the body organs in these conceptualizations connect to each other through conceptual metaphors. Sometimes a body is conceptualized as human and the other as object; sometimes both will appear as human, sometimes one of them appear as human and the other one as vessel, sometimes both appear as object, sometimes one is like vessel and the other one as a container.
In many lyrics of Hassan Dehlawi, heart is conceptualized as a vessel. In the couplet considered, some few cases of the structural metaphor of “body organ is a place” were found. In addition, the combined use of metaphors added to the richness of the conceptualizations. The amalgamation of metaphors is a strong process that provides conceptual metaphor into combined form and various kinds and facilitate the efficiency as well as the comprehensibility of metaphors.
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