روابط تجّاری با هند در نخستین سال‌های قرن بیستم میلادی و تأثیرآن بر اقتصاد ایران تا آغاز جنگ جهانی اول(1317ق./1900م تا 1332ق./ 1914م)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

تجارت ایران و هند در آستانة مشروطه افزایش یافت و این امر موجب دگرگونی در جامعه ایران شد. مسأله اصلی تحقیق بازشناسی چگونگی و پیامدهای روابط تجاری بین ایران و هند است. هدف تحقیق ارائه تحلیل تازه‌ای از تأثیر روابط بازرگانی ایران و هند بر اقتصاد ایران در آغاز قرن بیستم میلادی و فرصت‌ها و تهدیدهای این مناسبات است. رویکرد تحقیق حاضر «کیفی»و «توصیفی – تحلیلی» است و  داده‌ها به روش «اسنادی»و بر پایۀ منابع «کتابخانه‌ای»گردآوری شده‌اند. فرضیه پژوهش این است که افزایش مبادلات تجاری با هند در آن برهه از زمان، از یک سو بر تولیدات داخلی اثر گذاشت و از سوی دیگر به رشد تفکر نوگرایی و بروز مشروطه کمک کرد. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می دهد که در آستانة مشروطه فعّالیّت بازرگانی بین دو کشور افزایش یافت و بر اثر ارتباط زرتشتیان ایران با پارسیان هند و رفت و آمد بازرگانان، زمینة برخی تحوّلات نوگرایانه فراهم آمد؛ لیکن پس از پیروزی مشروطه به دلیل بروز ناامنی و مداخله بیگانگان، روند توسعة اجتماعی که بر پایه تجارت با هند آغاز شده بود، کاهش یافت و اقتصاد کشور آسیب دید. پس از بستن قرارداد 1907م. با روسیه نیز انگلستان بر اقتصاد جنوب ایران چیرگی کامل یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Trade relations with India in the first years of the 20th century and its implications for Iran's economy and culture until the outbreak of World War I (1317 AH / 1900 to 1332 AH / 1914 AD).

نویسنده [English]

  • mohammadreza Askarani
Assistant Professor of History Department of Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract:
1-      Introduction
Britain has been widely represented in the Iranian markets since the middle of the Qajar period Relationships between Iranian businessmen and India also increased. Iranian businessmen had branches in Istanbul, Moscow and Cairo, and they were doing a lot of bargains.
The main issue of the research is the quality and quantity of trade relations between Iran and India. And the other question is, how did these relations affect the social changes in Iran?
The main question is, how did Iran's trade relations with India affect the Iranian economy in the first years of the 20th century? And another question is, how was the quantity and quality of trade relations with India before and after the Constitutional Revolution?
The aim is to recognize the dimensions of Iran-India trade relations in one of the most sensitive periods in Iranian and world history and the author tries to understand how much Iranian society has influenced from western culture and civilization. This impact was due to Britain's presence in India.
This research is due to the fact that the years leading up to World War I are among the most turbulent periods of Iranian history and Some of the reasons for the failure of the constitutional movement can be identified through research into the economic events of those years. The author tries to deal with various aspects of Iran-India trade at the doorstep of the Constitutional Revolution with a new perspective and examine the performance of the British Indian government in trading with Iran and the economic impact of this trade on Iranian society, especially in the years before the outbreak of the First World War
The research approach is "qualitative" in the "analytical description" method. The researcher describes an event with scientific criteria and then explains and interprets them. The data of this research are compiled by "documentary" method and based on "library" resources and the writer, using historical sources such as travel logs, memoirs and documents, tries to first "historical description" and then give a new "analysis" of the subject. 
 
 
2-      Discussion
After concluding the Golestan agreement, England was able to benefit from the contention between Iran and Russia and greatly increase its exports to Iran. In the late nineteenth century, England challenged the Ottoman presence in the Persian Gulf and expelled that empire from the scene. At the same time, Iranian businessmen in India formed various associations, and Zoroastrians in India also played a significant role in trade with Iran. These activities had a great impact on Iranian trade and businessmen became familiar with the new ways of trading. The thriving trade led to the formation and expansion of new capitalists in Iran, which were merchants of a wide range of this class. Iranian businessmen realized that buying directly from Europe was more cost effective than trading with their agents in Iranian cities.They established companies for this purpose.The presence of Iranian businessmen in world trade has created a strong social layer that became critics of Iran's politics and government due to the relationship with the advanced world of European and American societies.
 The national economy movement, which supported the boycott of foreign commodities and the promotion of domestic goods, began in this class and very soon, this innovative class would have called for political participation, one of the reasons for the constitutional revolution.
After the constitutional movement, the power of the Qajar government was reduced and insecurity was found in the roads of the central and southern regions of the country. The existence of bandits in different parts of the country slowed the Iranian business trend. Despite the efforts of the Iranian government and the ruler of Fars province to secure roads, Britain's intervention increased the turmoil.Though these would Threatened British trade, it was an excuse for the government to increase political pressure on the Iranian government.
With the outbreak of World War I and the rise of the Russian Revolution, Britain's influence increased on the coast of the Gulf and the eastern and southern regions of the country. An important part of the post-Constitutional riot was the result of interventions of European countries therefore Britain had the opportunity to legalize its influence in Iran by forming the "South Persia Rifles". The greater presence of Britain in the Persian Gulf enabled Britain to take over the life of Iran.
 
 
3-      Conclusion
The trade exchanges between Iran and India, which expanded from the middle of the Qajar period, encouraged Iranian businessmen to establish business corporations and led to a significant increase in European goods and, consequently, a reduction in domestic production. British colonial purposes have led some domestic crops to be replaced by crops such as opium, tobacco and cotton. In this way, in addition to the withdrawal of gold and silver from the country, the pattern of cultivation was also affected, which showed undesirable effects in the following years. Some merchants who had trade with India invested in the industries and shipping lines of that country and made a lot of wealth. They applied for commercial rights like their counterparts in advanced countries.
With the issuance of a decree at the time of Nasir al-Din Shah, Zoroastrians were exempted from additional taxes and Zoroastrian merchants gained success in business with India due to the efforts of Indian Zoroastrians. The merchant established a bank and, through paying donations, helped the liberation movement. Iranian businessmen residing in India formed associations and trade unions and Iranian political representatives in India also presented recommendations to the Iranian government to improve the trade and economy. What made these attempts to be foiled was the Russian and British interventions and their colonial rivalry. The two countries increased their military presence by using social unpleasant conditions after the Constitutional Revolution. And occupied the land of Iran at the start of the First World War.
 
Key Words: 1, Trading 2, India 3, English 4, Iran 5, Constitutional
 
 
Reference
 

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trading
  • India
  • English
  • Iran
  • Constitutional