ستی، شکلی از مرگ‌های آیینی متوالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات دانشگاه لرستان

چکیده

بررسی آیین­های مشترک بین مردم سرزمین­های گوناگون و یافتن ریشه­های آن­ها، ما را به وجود اشتراکاتی در فرهنگ ملل مختلف راهنمایی ­می­کند. خودسوزی زن بیوه در مراسم سوزانده شدن جسد همسرش و همراهی با او، تحت عنوان آیین «ستی» انجام­ می­شده­است. ستی و شکل­های مختلف آن  بین هندوان با قدمت 1000 تا 500 سال پیش از میلاد رواج داشته­است.این آیین در مرگ­های متوالی و شکل جبری آن در گورخانه­های بسیاری، چهره غیرانسانی خود را نشان­داده و در شکل ظاهرا خودخواسته نماد عشق، وفاداری و عفت و پاکی در منظومه­های عاشقانه‌ای با عنوان «ستی نامه» یا با عنوان های دیگر در هند و ایران به تصویر کشیده شده­است. این مقاله با هدف پرتوافکنی بر زوایای ناشناخته آیین ستی و به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی تنظیم شده است.  این پژوهش با توجه به اسناد موجود و مطالعات باستان شناسان در مناطق مختلف به وجود تشابه هایی در انجام و چگونگی آن در هند با آنچه در بین مردم مصر، چین، روسیه، روم و تاتار بوده، دست یافته و نشان­داده­است پیش از آنکه «ستی» امری خودخواسته باشد، امری جبری بوده و ابتدا در خاندان­های سلطنتی و پادشاهی، بنابه دلایل خاصی صورت می­گرفته­است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sati, a Form of Successive Ritual Deaths

نویسندگان [English]

  • susan Feizi Gilandeh 1
  • mohammadreza roozbeh 2
  • ali heidari 2
1 Ph.D. student of Persian language and literature of Lorestan University
2 Associate professor of language and literature of Lorestan University
چکیده [English]

 
 Extensive Abstract:
1-Introduction
The study of common rituals among people of different lands and finding their origins leads us to some commonalities among different nations. The incarnation of the widow at the burning ceremony of the body of her husband and accompanying him, has being done entitled as Sati or Sith.Sati and its various forms among Hindus dates back to the era from 1000 BC to 500 BC and is considered to be more ancient than Brahmin traditions. After the humanitarian actions of one of the most important modern correctional organizations entitled as Brahmo Samajj announced the abolition of Sati by Bentinck (British ruler) in 1829. Some scholars argue that this tradition has a mythic origin in India and Rome (Gardner, 2009: 75-77).This ritual in its successive deaths and its altruistic form in many burial grounds has shown its inhumane face and in its own form the symbol of love, loyalty, chastity in the love of the poetry system Shown as "Sati Nameh" or with other titles in India and Iran. The reflection of this ritual in Persian literature dates back to the late fourth century and early fifth century AH. The common theme of these romance, which is part of the Persian lyric literature, represents the Hindu community beliefs andcredence in which there is no trace ofSati’s violence and inhumane treats against widows and the mental and psychological pressures dominating Indians’ traditional society and social domination of the traditional Indian society and patriotic view of the Hindu religion and the determination of the woman and the lack of a desire for her independent social existence. This research examines the place of Sith's ritual in different religions and beliefs of different nations and their similarities and differences, and the existence of the relationship between successive deaths and Sith's beliefs about its causes and beliefs, and aims to irradiate the unknowns. According to the existing documents and archaeological studies in different regions, including Egypt, China, Russia, Rome and Tatar, the intention is to show that, "Sati" is not primarily an act of self-will and a sign of love and loyalty, but somethingcompulsory and it had been initially in royal families for certain reasons.
2- Research Methodology
The present research is a descriptive-analytical study. Theoretical foundations of the research are based on historical records and objective observations of writers and poets including Ibn Battutah, Taswaji, Nasser Khosrow, Khalqdir Hashemi Abbasi, Will Durant, Mustamli Bukhari, Shooshtari, Shamloo, Anand Ram, Nowei, Sirjafi, Ramhormoziand Marco Polo. The general setting is based on the practice of "sati" ritualsin India and its self-willformand compulsory successive deaths around the world.All documents are going to be investigated through the rest of the present study.
3-Discussion
As a result of the violent behaviors against widows in Indian community there have been a lot of self-immolations followed by the death of spouse. This has been regarded as a response to pressures imposed on her. Sati was just in some cases women’s own decisions in response to accept a painful death that was a sign of loyalty and chastity and love, and this self-inspired form is depicted beautifully in Indian romance. This type of suicides and physical harassments have been in Iran too. Iraj mourn, burning the garden and the residence and crying over them, self-harm and ultimately servants’ suicide for death of Foroud, Shirin and Khosrow Parviz, all of a friendly suicide, are some examples of this kind. Burning the corpse and following that self-immolation to show loyalty and love, indicates the importance and sanctity of the element of fire among Indians.  The sacredness of the fire on the one hand, and the attention to its cleansing properties- and regarding the deaths, eradicating their sins-  on the other hand, is rooted in their religious beliefs.The sanctity of this element in Iran and India was so fervent that the  test for abandonment and condemnation was determined by passing over the fire. (Vahedoost, 2004: 186). In other regions, king’s wives and his soldiers, servants and horses were buried together with the corpse which can be considered as another form of such ritual. Although committing these violent actions against widows and young ladies in a form of Sati has had different types, what is the same in all cases is that an alive person is killed while breathing and it seems that all these cruel actions are rooted in a common belief among different tribes and communities. This has been usually done on women and in successive deaths and its compulsory type in many grave lands has shown its real face. Historical documents show successive deaths among the tribes of northern Europe, the Slavs, the Baltics, the Indians of North America, and the Incas as a collective ritual and the establishment of one or more religious ceremonies with or without consent.
4-Conclusion
"Sati" is one of the common rituals introduced in different forms throughout the life of humankind and has continued for a long time, and perhaps there would be the possibility of existing some relationships between “Sati” and religiousgift ceremonies and sacrifices in different communities. The familiarity of the Persians with the Hindu Sati in addition to cultural relations in different periods can be attributed to the indigenous ethnic groups and to what is known as mass memory.Rites and religious ceremonies may change over the course of the era, but in most cases, their generalizations remain stable in the minds of the public, and sometimes eliminate idealistic and desirable images contrary to their existential and sometimes violent reality they leave behind. In addition to the minds, these beliefs have been recorded in paintings, sculptures, songs, and especially in the literature of nations, and they address a part of our past, and what by studying them and discovering commons, is possible to find the roots of many traditions and rituals, and to show similarities in different geographic environments.This can be justifiedby common mythologies and ancient shared paradigms asthe mental implications among different ethnic groups. “Sati” has been made in a few cases on a voluntary basis, but what we see in the implementation of this tradition on a large scale and in its rude and inhumane face throughout the history of different peoples is that rooted in ignorance ofhuman ignorance about the world after death, and belief in the possibility of having a material life there, and ignoring woman’s independent existence in societies.The same reasons implementation of this ritual on women among different communities can be regarded as a kind of ignorance towards women independent and free personalities in the society. It has also been rooted in some common beliefs among living tribes and for Indians believing inreincarnation. The exact investigation of these rites and rituals and many of the affirmed notions in literary texts needs more vigilant studies and discussions. Particularly, when a same theme is repeated in a special period over and over again and gains acceptability. About twenty-three romantic poetries all ending with a same notion, sati indicates the imitative aspects of these poetries, all doing what one has done, could shed light on the acceptance of this notion ignoring its real essence and inhumane violent nature, something regarded as the symbol of love and loyalty and paradigm for romance within the community.
 
 
References

1-Ibn Battuteh, Mohammad bin Abdullah ibn Muhammad bin Ibrahim Lovati Tangji. Safarname. Translation by Mohammad Ali Moawad Tehran: Publishing House of Book, 1348..

2-Evans, Veronica,Asatir Hend. Translation by f Bajlan Farrokhi. Tehran: Golshan Publications, 1373.
3---Baba Safari, Ali Asghar and Gholamreza Salemian. "Sith and Its Reflection in Persian Literature". Magazine of Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences of Mashhad. 16th Spring. Pages 49-74. 1387..
4-Bastany Parizi, Mohammad Ibrahim. Khatun haft gale. Tehran: Dehkhoda 1344.
5--Behrozi, Roghaieh. "Hamurbi's Laws and Women's Rights in the Ancient East." Legal Journal of Justice. No. 30th. Pages 4-35. 1379.
6-Jafary, Younes. Paguheshhay adaby dar adabiyat hend. Tehran: Tehran University Press , 1997.
7-Jalali Naeini, Seyed Mohammad Reza. Ffarhang Sanskrit-Farsi ,. Volume Two. Research Center for Humanities and Cultural Studies.
8-Javani, Asghar. "Seremony Sati of India in the Painting of the Chehelsoton Palace and Masnavi Bazz and Gandz (manifestation of the cultural relations of Iran and India in the era of Shah Abbas II and Akbar Shah)." Art and Architecture: Art Research Isfahan University of Art. Spring and summer of the second year. No. 3. P. 1-10. 1391
9-Hekmat, Ali Asghar, Hend. Tehran: Tehran University Press, 19937
10-Darashookooh,Shahzade mohammad. Opanishad, Translation by Mohammadreza Jalali Naini and Tarachand, : 2nd  Publication, Tehran: Tahoori 2536.  
11-Dala Pikola, Anala. Asatier hend. Translation by Abbas Mokhtber. Tehran: Publishing Center ,138.5.
12-Durkheim, Emile. Khodkoshi . Translation Nader Salarzadeh Amiri. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabai University Press 2008.
13-Kapatist Taverniye, Jein, India in Suttee, Translation by koorosh Fattahi, ma[le voshd tarikh, dore dahom, p.30-61, Tehran: 1388.  
14-Rashed bin Hamar, Ahmad bin Fazlán. Safarname. Translation by Seyyed Abolfazl Tabatabai. Tehran: East publication 1345.
15-Ramhormozi, the great captain of Shahriar. Ajayeb hend. Translation by Mohammad Mollakzadeh. Tehran: Publication of the Culture Foundation of Iran in 1348.
16- Shardin faransavi, Safarname gesmat. Isfahan City Tour. Translation by Hossein Sharifi. Tehran: Printing House of Save 1330..
17-Shamloo, But Gholī bin Dawood Quli, Qusas Khaqani. Correction of Seyyed Hassan Sadat Naseri. Tehran Public Organization of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance,1371..
18-Shooshtari, Mir-Abdol-Latif Khan. Tohfatulalam v zil tohfe. Correction and Introduction Samad Movahed. Tehran: Taheri 1363.
19-Abedi, Seyyed Mir Hossein. "Sith Stories in Persian Literature". art and architecture. Thirteenth period Oct-8, pp. 569-573. 1346.
20-Farzad, Abdolhossein , Gozide ashar  Manouchehri. Tehran: Atieh 1376.
21-Freezer, James . Shakhe zarrin,Translation by Bahram Firoozmand, Tehran: Agah 1386.
22-Feish, ?, Burning Widows in Indiya and different classes of Successive Deaths, majalle gozaresh, ordibehesht, aomare 99, p66-69, Tehran: 1378
23-Qazvini, Mir Ghiyath-al-Din Ali, Mahabahrat-Translations, by Jalali Naiini, Mohammad Reza and Nasos Shokla, Volume I, Second Edition, Tehran: Tahiri, 1380..
24-Campbell, Joseph. Asatie mashreg zamin. Translation by Ali Asghar Bahrami. Second edition. Tehran: Gavane roshds 1389..
25-Gardner, Jin-F. Osturehaye Romy. Translation by Abbas Mokhtber. fourth edition. Tehran: Publishing Center 1388.
26--Latifi, Abdul Hussein. "Rites of Death in Hindu Religion." A Study of Subcontinent Studies in Sistan and Baluchestan University. Year 6, Number nineteen. The University of Afghanistan, pp. 85-106. 1393.
27-Madi, Arjang. Eshg dar adab farsi Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research, 1371.
28-Marcopolo. Safarname. Translation by Habibollah Sahihi. Tehran: Company Translating
 and Publishing 1350.
29-1-Mihaela ,Rus and workmates ( 2014) ,"The public pereception in Dobrogea of the role of Muslim Women",published by Elsevier Ltd.open access under CCBY-NC-NDLicence pp796-800.
.30-Motamedi, Gholam Hossein ,Ensan v marg. Tehran: publishing center 1372.
31-Maguli, Nadia and Mahmoud Tavousi. " Death and its Rites in Ancient Iran. "Journal of the Academy, No ?. 1392.
32-Montazeri Moghadam, Hamed. "India from the Massoudi's View at the Beginning of the 4th Century AH". History of History. Summer, No. 2. P. 165-208. 1384
33-Noei  Khoboshani, Mohammad Reza, Suzo Godazd, Introduction by Amir Hasan Ebedi, Tehran: Iran Culture Culture Foundation Publishing House 1348.
34-Vaheddoust, Mahvash, "The Cultural Relations of Iran and India from the Ancient Period to the Safavid Period". Journal of Science Social and Human Sciences University of Shiraz, Volume Twenty-Two, No. 1, Successive Spring, 2005.
35 -Warner, Rex. Daneshname Asatir Iran. Translator Abolqasem Ismail Pour Under Warner. Tehran: Publishing Myths 1386..
36-Herodot, Tarikh, Translation Hadi Hedayati, Volume Four. ? 1340.