عنوان مقاله [English]
During the reign of Shah Tahmasb, Qandehar was conquered by Safavids. He passed the monarchy to his nephew Sultan Hossien Mirza (Eskandar Beig, 1350: 1 / 92-93V 478). After the death of Sultan Hossein Mirza, his sons who were considered his successors in Qandehar, took refuge in the Mongol court in India (Jahangir, 1357: 149 148). The main objective of this research is to determine the role of Safavid princes in the Indian Mongol court. This research attempts to answer the following questions:
1. What are the factors which led into the migration of Sultan Hossein Mirza's sons to the Indian Mongol court?
2- How did the Indian Mongols treat the Safavid princes?
3. What were the roles of the Safavid princes in the Indian Mongol court?
2- Research Methodology
The writers have tried to answer the questions through the lens of the historical research which is based on analytical-descriptive method. The main tool used in this research is taking notes of primary sources. These resources were carefully studied. Content required, in full text, text abstract, and text withdrawal, are taken note of. Notes are divided into general and partial topics to prevent confusion in the content and to allow a reasonable analysis of events.
Sultan Hussein Mirza, the son of Bahram Mirza, was the only brother of Shah Tahmasb (Bedlisi, 1377: 2/202); (Qazvini: 1367, 17-16). He was appointed by Shah Tahmasb to the Qandehar’s sovereignty (Eskandar Beig, 1350: 1 / 92-93 / 478). Sultan Hussein Mirza had five sons. They were called, in order of birth, Mozaffar Hossein Mirza, Rostam Mirza, Sanjar Mirza, Abu Saeed Mirza and Mohammad Hossein Mirza (136). All his sons resided with him in Qandehar, except Mohammad Hussein Mirza, who stayed in the court. (Hossein Qomi, 1363: 623). The sons of Sultan Hussein Mirza took control of Qandehar after his death (Hossein Astarabadi, 1356: 66). After a while, they had controversy over the Sistan’s area. These disputes resulted in war between them (Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 298-297 / 3). These wars caused unrest in Qandehar and Sistan districts. The relentless attacks of Uzbeks to Khorasan led to more turmoil in the situation (Hossein Qomi, 1363: 899 - 895). On the other hand, Akbar Shah, who had been always pondering upon the conquest of Qandehar, by observing the prevailing conditions, began to make promises and delivered gifts to the princes of Safavid (Eskandar Beig, 1350: 1 / 486-448). Finally, Rustam Mirza and Sultan Hussein Mirza took refugee after several letters and treaties to India (Jahangir, 1357: 149-148). They were welcomed by Akbar Shah after entering India (Nezam al-Din Ahmad, n.d: 2/423); (Kenbo, n.d: 1/41). Three of them Mozaffar Hossein Mirza, Abu Saeed Mirza, Sanjar Mireza) died at the very early years of their arrival in India (Eskandar Beig, 1350: 1/299). But Rostam Mirza was able to find a good position during the reign of Akbar Shah in conquering Ahmadinegar and dominated the kingdoms of Dakan (Nahavandi, Bely: 1/932). He was also involved in the upheavals of the late Jahangir’s monarchy. Jahangir trusted him so much that he believed the oath of Rostam Mirza, alleging that Mohtaran Khan Khajesara, Khalil Beig Zolgadr and Qadayi Khan Mirtozk had an affair with Prince Khurram, therefore he killed them all (Khafi Khan Nezam al molki, 1874: 1 / 403-404). Rostam Mirza eventually died after serving fifty years in India, in 1052 AH (Kenbo, n.d: 306.2). According to the report of Shahnavaz Khan, one of the daughters of Rostam Mirza married to Sultan Parviz. (Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 3 / 349-348). Daroshokoh also married to one of the daughters of Rostam Mirza (Ghane Tatavy, 1957, 312). But the role of the children of Rostam Mirza, during the reign of Jahangir, increased slightly in the developments. The youngest son of Rustam, Murad, with princess Khoram, during the reign of Jahangir, went to Dakhan to help him (Lahuri, 1867: 1-167-165). Murad also played an important role in Princess Khoram’s dominance of Rayanan (Jahangir, 1359: 155 and 170-169). Shahnavnaz Khan, another son Rostam Mirza, participated in defeating the riot of Dakan’s regime. The regime announced a sermon to the Iranian government and declared independence. In 1045 AH, Shah Jahan went to Dakan to prepare a troop to invade the property of Bijapur and he himself moved to Dakan. Shahnavaz Khan played a major role in this war and conquering of various cultures such as Simon and Odyssey (Kenbo, n.d: 123-100, 133-130, 147-146). In the late unrests of Shah Jahan dynasty, Shahnavaz Khan was a supporter of Daroshokoh. He disobedied Orangzib because of defeating the riot of Dakan. Initially, this disobedience led to his arrestment in Buranpur by the command of Orangzib (Mohammad Bakht Orkhan, n.d: 1/17 Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 3/674). But after the Orangzib’s victory over Daroshokoh, Orangzib forgave Shahnavaz Khan and appointed him to rule Gajarat. (Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 3/673; Monshi Mohammad Kazem, 1868: 1/210). On the other hand, Orangzib, who was informed of the preparations for the new troops by Daroshokoh, sent a troop to pursue him. Daroshokoh was afraid and escaped to Gajarat from Orangzib’s troops. Shahnavaz Khan, the ruler of Gajarat, joined Daroshokoh (Khafi Khan Nezam al-Molki, 1874: 2 / 63-60). Eventually, in 1069 AH, Orangzib’s troops managed to dominate Shahnavaz Khan’s forces and massacred many of his soldiers. In order to defend his soldiers and take revenge he entered the battle field; an arrow struck him and he was killed. (Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 3 / 675-674). Hasan Mirza, another son of Rostam, was appointed to rule the Bengal government in 1038 AH. (Lahuri, 1867: 2 / 164-163). He also took part in opposing Jaget Sange’s disobedience, along with his son, Safshekan Khan (247-246). Safshekan Khan, the son of Hassan Mirza, in the late unrests of the Shah Jahan dynasty, unlike Shahnavaz Khan, was an advocate of Orangzib and accompanied him in the war with Daroshokoh. (Manshi Mohammad Kazem, 1868: 1/63 and 69-68). After the victory of Orangzib and movement of Daroshokoh to Lahore, he also pursued him (Khafi Khan Nezamal-Molki, 1874: 2 / 61-60). Morad Kam, another son of Rostam, was also a supporter of Orangzib and had control over Jonpour. First, he surrendered to Mohammad Shoja, the brother of Orangzib who had joined Daroshokoh. But eventually, with the resistance of Orangzib army in front of Mohammad Shoja , he joined Orangzib and was highly admired (Khafi khan Nezam al-Molki, 1874: 2 / 58-45). Mokarram Khan eventually died in 1080 AH due to severe fever (Shahnavaz Khan, 1888: 3/586).
The sons of Sultan Hussein Mirza took refuge in India because of the internal disputes, the relentless attacks of Uzbeks to Khorasan, the civil unrests in Iran, and Akbar Shah's attempts to dominate Qandehar. None of them except Mozaffar Hossein Mirza thought about returning. Apparently, Mozaffar Hossein Mirza's disobedience and his early death had a negative impact on the position of his children in India. But Rostam Mirza and his children played important roles in the period of Jahangir’s dynasty. They were also important figures in the changes which occurred during Shah Jahan’s kingdom and the subsequent riots of his monarchy. The meticulous examination of the Orangzib's treatment of Safavid princes is not possible because of the death of several of them in the very early years and the decree of the abolition of historic writing in this period. But in general, most of them, during the reign of the Mongols over India, were trying to maintain their supremacy. They adapted themselves to Indian customs. They made a kinship with them. At key points, they played key roles and used every opportunity to prove themselves. In fact, their immigration to India was the initiator of a new chapter in the relationship between the two dynasties of the Safavids and the Indian Mongols and this issue has not been addressed so far. What is certain is that a better understanding of the relationships between the two dynasties of the Safavids and the Indian Mongols requires further research to reveal the hidden dimensions of the relations of these two dynasties
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