قانون وابستگی متقابل؛ بنیانی برای صلح در دین بودا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه ادیان و عرفان تطبیقی دانشکده الهیات و معارف اسلامی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

قانون «وابستگی متقابل پدیده‌ها» به‌عنوان آموزه‌ای بنیادین در آیین بودا، هم با رویکرد وجودشناختی قابل ‌بررسی است و هم با رویکرد معرفت‌شناختی. به‌لحاظ وجود‌شناسی، نظریه‌ای است برای توضیح ماهیت و روابط وجود، صیرورت، هستی و واقعیت غایی؛ بدین معنا که تمامی وضعیت‌ها متوقف بر حالات و وضعیت‌های پیشین هستند و خود این حالات و وضعیت‌ها نیز به‌نوبۀ خود ایجادگر دیگر امور هستند؛ اما به‌لحاظ معرفت‌شناسی، نظریه‌ای است دربارۀ چگونگی کسب معرفت در رابطه با وجود، صیرورت، هستی و واقعیت. این قانون می‌تواند دارای ارتباط وثیقی با صلح و همزیستی باشد؛ با این توضیح که اگر انسان‌ها به واقعیت ارتباط متقابل تمام اجزای جهان آگاهی داشته‌باشند، خواهند دریافت که کنش‌هایشان نسبت‌به دیگران درواقع در ارتباط با خودشان است. این مطالعه به روش توصیفی و تبیینی در پی بررسی اضلاع و ابعاد این اصل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The principle of Dependent Origination; the foundation for peace in Buddhism

نویسنده [English]

  • khalil Hakimifar
Dept of Comparative Religions and Mysticism, faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, university of Sistan and Baluchestan, zahedan. Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract:
1-      Introduction:
The Buddhism was born in India and originated from Hinduism. In Primitive Hinduism, it was emphasized on the sacrifice and various rituals for salvation. Following the Vedas, the Upanishids era emerged, which recognized knowledge as the right way of salvation. Their common conviction was that ultimate salvation was possible only for one class, that is, Brahmans. In response to the early Hinduism, Two reformist religions emerged: Jainism and Buddhism. The Jainism emphasized austerity, but Buddha introduced the middle way as a way of salvation. All Buddha's recommendations were practical and he asserted that his massage is about human suffering, its origin and the way of out of it. Because they are the only ones that help human beings escape from suffering. Therefore, his words were empty of theoretical discussion and did not speak of philosophical issues. Thus, the Buddhists believe that the Buddha (meaning "awake") has presented the real way of salvation, because he himself has seen in this way the laws of the world, including four noble truths and the law of interdependent origination. This principle explains the real conditions of the world which forms the basis for the peaceful coexistence of human beings.
2-      Background of study:
To understand each religion, it is necessary to recognize its features and foundations. Fundamental doctrines of religions provide an appropriate response to basic human questions. Since these teachings represent the attitude of a religion towards the world and the universe, it is called a worldview. What is presented in this article is the explanation of one of the basic teachings of the Buddhist tradition and the expression of its social function, regardless of its complex details.
3-      Review of Literature:
According to the studies, there is no independent work in this field in Persian language, but many studies have been conducted in other languages, including English, can be mentioned as follows:
Dr. Yochi Cawada (1999), in his book "from inner peace to global peace" is trying to examine the Buddha's solution to global peace. To this end, he explains the causes of suffering in Buddhism, and continues to explain the concept of "shanti" or peace in Hinduism. In the following, he refers to the concept of peace in the light of the principle of the interdependent origination. Theresa Der-lan Yeh (2006), in his article "The Road to Peace in Buddhism," first defines the principle of interdependence of phenomena and then examines the causes and factors of violence in Buddha's view, and ultimately concludes that the Buddha's solution for peace and peaceful coexistence is an amazing and practical one. Ven Mahasi Sayadaw explores the details of this principle in his valuable book entitled "Debates on the principle of interdependence of origination" in fourteen chapters. It is originally published in Burma in 1999 and it was translated and published online by Aye Maung.
4-      The statement of study:
The present research is responsible for answering these questions: First, what is the meaning of the interdependent origination in Buddhism and its denominations? Secondly, how can relate this law to other Buddhist teachings and, thirdly, what is the relation of this law to peace and peaceful coexistence in human society?
5-      Methodology:
This research is descriptive-analytical and based on library resources. the author has tried to use as authentic and relevant sources as possible.
6-      Discussion:
The Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada) is one of the most vital concepts of Buddhism. This theory explains the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. The essence of this rule is that all creatures and phenomena are interdependent, and everything in the world is based on this rule. With the awakening to the interdependent reality, selfish compulsive responses will be replaced by four positive emotional faculties (Brahmavihara): metta (loving-kindness), karuna (compassion), mudita (sympathetic joy), and upekkha (Equanimity). The idea of Compassion has its origins in pre-Buddhistic thought. It is first met with in the Chāndogya Upanishad, where it is said that one should practice Ahiṃsā (non-violence) towards all creatures with the sole exception of holy places in other words animal sacrifices to God were permitted. The concept of ahimsa also finds a central place in Jainism, where the Jain ascetic goes into extremes in practicing this virtue. But it was Buddhism which made ahimsa basically a virtue to be practiced in human relations and introduced the new word “mettā” (the abstract noun from mitra, friend) to denote this concept. But the object of one’s mettā (Compassion, Love) is not only human beings but all beings both higher and lower than the human, and it came to mean the completely selfless but boundless compassion of a Buddha. (Jayatillake. 2008, p.3) Therefore, the principle of the interdependent origination as an external reality, in addition to the idea of compassion as an internal virtue, led to the rejection of violence. The Buddhist tolerance and peace are rooted in this structure.  In this way, Buddha provided a theoretical foundation for peace. A peace based on this rule is a lasting peace, because it is based on mutual relations at the macro and micro levels of the world. In today's world, the Savior is the one who can turn the situation in favor of peace and tranquility. He can be someone whose actions are manifestations of wisdom and compassion.
 
7-      Conclusion:
According to the teachings of Buddha, peace and joy in society require inner peace and happiness, and everyone first of all must fix them within themselves. Inner Peace is along with wisdom and compassion. Since every human being lives in a context of interconnectedness with other people, beings and the world, by knowing this principle, he can turn his instinctive love into altruism and cultivate empathy and tolerance. The rule of no-violence in Buddhist ethic is based on this doctrine that other living entities are like us; we must treat them in the way we want to be treated with us. The sense of empathy decides that a person has a respectful and non-violent view of all creatures. A sense of empathy required that a person has a respectful and non-violent view toward all beings. Finally, the Buddhist approach to peace can provide common ground for other religious traditions. The real and lasting peace can be pursued through continuous dialogue and cooperation and ultimately lead to the expansion of friendships and understandings.
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Buddha
  • Dependent Origination
  • Compassion
  • peace