ساخت کلان دوبیتی‌‌های علامه اقبال لاهوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه زابل

10.22111/jsr.2019.4675

چکیده

گوینده یا نویسنده هنگام تولید یک متن، با توجه به معرفت زمینه‌‌‌‌ای و اطلاعاتی که ظاهراً بین او و خواننده مشترک است، از قالب خاصی برای ارائۀ مطلب استفاده می‌‌‌‌کند. علامه اقبال لاهوری (1938-1877م) در مجموعۀ شعر ارمغان حجاز برای بیان دیدگاه‌‌‌‌های سیاسی و اجتماعی و دینی خویش از قالب دوبیتی بهره برده که جلوه‌‌‌‌گاهی از اندیشه و احساس لطیف شاعر است؛ بنابراین در این نوشتار به‌‌منظور دست‌‌‌‌یابی به برخی از ویژگی‌‌‌‌های زبان‌‌‌‌شناختی و تجزیه‌‌و‌‌تحلیل گفتمانی ادبی، دوبیتی‌‌‌‌های وی به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته تا به این سؤالات اساسی پاسخ داده‌‌شود که ساخت کلان دوبیتی‌‌‌‌های اقبال چگونه است و هر دوبیتی از چه سازه‌‌‎هایی تشکیل شده‌‌است؟ نتایج به‌‌دست‌‌آمده حاکی از آن است که ساخت و بافت دوبیتی‌‌های وی به سه دستة تک‌‌سازه‌‌‌‌ای، دو‌‌سازه‌‌‌‌ای و سه‌‌سازه‌‌‌‌ای قابل‌‌تقسیم است که دوبیتی‌‌های تک‌‌سازه‌‌‌‌ای بیش از نیمی از کل دوبیتی‌‌‌‌ها را به خود اختصاص داده‌‌است. در دوبیتی‌‌های تک‌‌سازه‌‌‌‌ای، سازة توصیف بیشترین بسامد را دارد و در آن توصیف انسان و شرح حال خویشتن و احوال دل محوری‌‌‌‌ترین عنصر به حساب می‌‌‌‌آید. از آنجا که در این دوبیتی‌‌‌‌ها جزء فرستنده و گیرنده و نیز خود پیام در مرکزیت و کانون توجه قرار دارد، گفتمان دوبیتی‌‌‌‌های اقبال از نوع عاطفی، ترغیبی و ادبی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The great framework of the distiches of Allameh Iqbal Lahouri

نویسنده [English]

  • ahmad sanchouli
Assistant Professor of Language and Literature in Zabol University
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract:
 
1-      Introduction
One of the main topics in the organization and processing of discourse in the form of text and extracting and deducing the meaning of the text is the background knowledge or previous information (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30). Based on this view, the text that continues in a chain of sentences is "the exchange of the speaker (or writer) and the listener (or the reader) in a specific context within the framework of social and cultural tradition" and " It helps to make meaningful and meaningful words, and makes a continuous speech to become an expanded and coherent set of meanings, not merely a set of unambiguous and separated sentences "(Abrams, 1387: 104-103).
One of the patterns described in the reader or listener's mind in explaining and describing how the information contained in a text is organized and reorganized according to their expectations, and the listener or reader also, based on his prior expectations and knowledge, he organizes this information in his own mind, the model-theoretic schema model. Based on this template, when a member of the collection (or one of the subsets) is instigated, the rest of the members are also active (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 31).
The concept of schemata or macro production, first developed by Bartlet in 1932,  to explain and describe how to adjust and reorganize the information in a story in the minds of the reader or the listener according to their expectations. That is, the listener or the reader, based on his previous expectations and knowledge, organizes this information in his mind (Rashidi & Ansari, 2011: 124, quoted by Swales, 1990).
 
Swales (1990) also uses the mental plan as a pre-knowledge structure in the minds of humans, which means that humans, based on their experience, knowledge, beliefs have fixed patterns, and designs in their minds. He also believes that a person always evaluates events based on his own mental plan and measures their alignment with their previous experiences, knowledge and beliefs and, on this basis, analyzes and adjusts and Organizes (same: 125).
In general, there are two major types of intellectual contexts that are: formal and content (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30; and Swales, 1990). The intellectual-formal framework is a pre-knowledge knowledge (prior knowledge) of rhetorical structures of various types of texts; the intellectual-content framework is a variety of linguistic and non-linguistic experiences that shape the concepts and facts in the human, mind and spread background knowledge for a discourse that makes the possibility of evaluating the validity of the propositions and the appropriateness and relevance of them (Rashidi & Ansari, 2011: 125-124).
 
Accordingly, the speaker and the listener, or the author and the reader, speak or write in a conversation or writing, according to the prior information that is thought to be shared between them in relation to the topic in question. The delivery method, the choice of the format of the speech, the summary or the broad expression of the subject, and finally the use of the syntax and the specific vocabulary of the presentation of the presentation depends on several factors, including the quality of the background knowledge. The listener or the reader also uses these features to discover, interpret, and extract the purpos of the speaker and writer (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30).
 
 
 
2-      Research methodology
The research methodology is a descriptive-analytic method in which Iqbal Lahouriʼs distiches are studied using the proposed constructive discourse and textual construct proposed by yarmohammdi on Khayyam's quatrains based on the three factors "description", "recommendation" and "explanation". In this research, all Persian distiches of Iqbal Lahouri have been analyzed in the collection of poems of "Armaghan Hejaz". At first, each distich has been studied and the framework has been extracted and then all of these frameworks have been compared and the frameworks the obtained in most of the distiches are generally compared to the proposed constructive discourse and the proposed text by yarmohammadi and the ways of sharing and differentiating them are expressed.
3-      Discussion
Armanagh Hijaz, that was published in 1938 , is the latest collection of poetry of Iqbal Lahori, published after his death. This book contains 394 distiches that express his political, social, educational, religious, and spiritual opinions. Of course, part of this book was in the Urdu language, which was not mentioned in the general Persian poems. This collection, which has been written "in the pursuit of the pilgrimage of Mecca and Medina in the style of Baba Taher's distiches" (Science, 1366: Fifteen), consists of five separate sections, namely: "the Presence of the Right", "Presence of Mission", "the presence of the nation", "the presence of the human world" and "to the helpers" of the way.
According to the studies on the construction of the Persian distiches of Allameh Iqbal-e-Lahouri in the collection of poems "Armaghan Hejaz", based on the proposed constructive textbook proposed by Lotfollah Yar-Mohammadi, these distiches in terms of constructive elements are divided into three categories: 1. distiches that are clearly seen in all three of the "description", "recommendation", and "explanation" structures. 2- distiches that only have a "description" or "recommendation" structure. 3. distiches that have two "descriptions", and explanation", descriptions and recommendations" or "recommendations and explanations".
4-      Conclusion
The creation of the Great distiches of Allameh Iqbal Lahouri in the collection of poetry of Armaghan Hejaz is based on the proposed discourse and textual design proposed by Lotfalullah Yarmohammadi (2004) is considerable; with the difference that Iqbal Lahouri describes the description of three categories "human", "word" and "self-esteem" instead of describing nature. This suggests that the kind of discourse in its distiches communication system focuses on the three elements of the "sender", "the receiver," and the "message itself". Hence, the type of discourse of Iqbal in the collection of poetry of Armaghan Hejaz is of a kind of emotional, persuasive and literary. In addition to "descriptions" that is of the highest frequency, "recommendation", "explanation" and "desire and wish" have also been used in its macro-distiches construction. Of course, the "desire and wish" is the least frequent. According to the recommendation and the explanation, Allama Iqbal Lahouri invites Muslims to know the truths of Islam, their knowledge of themselves and their own culture, and to avoid the glorious effects of Western culture. Because it is based on the fact that it is possible to make a new plan in the world and to cope with the struggle against colonialism and Western culture.
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