تحلیل تطبیقی وضعیت نابرابری جنسیتی در کشورهای شبه‌‌قاره هند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا دانشگاه پیام نور، مرکز ایلام

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تبریز

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا دانشگاه پیام نور، مرکز سنندج

4 دانشیار گروه برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

10.22111/jsr.2019.4676

چکیده

امروزه این واقعیت پذیرفته شده‌‌است که اگر زنان از حقوق ابتدایی خود در جامعه محروم باشند، آن جامعه قادر به دستیابی به توسعۀ پایدار نخواهد‌‌بود؛ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی در پی ‌‌‌‌آن است تا وضعیت نابرابری جنسیتی را در کشورهای شبه‌‌قاره هند در طول سه دوره (2011، 2012 و 2013) مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار دهد. اطلاعات موردنیاز پژوهش ازطریق روش اسنادی و استفاده از گزارش‌‌‌‌ جهانی توسعۀ انسانی و نابرابری جنسیتی سازمان ملل گردآوری شده‌‌است. نتایج پژوهش از دو جنبه قابل‌‌بررسی است: جنبۀ اول در سطح جهانی بیانگر آن است که در میان کشورهای شبه‌‌‌‌قاره در طول این سه دوره، هیچ کشوری وضعیت مناسبی ندارد که این نشان‌‌‌‌دهندۀ فاصلۀ این کشور و کشورهای دیگر با استاندارد‌‌‌‌های جهانی است. جنبۀ دوم در سطح منطقه‌‌‌‌ای بیانگر آن است که در طول این سه دوره با وجود آنکه همواره کشورهای شبه‌‌قاره پیشرفت نسبی به‌‌لحاظ GII داشته‌‌‌‌اند؛ اما همواره رتبۀ آن‌‌ها در سطح منطقه تغییری نکرده‌‌است و کشور میانمار در رتبۀ اول و هند در رتبۀ آخر قرار گرفته‌‌‌‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of Comparative situation Gender Inequality Index in the countries of the Indian subcontinent

نویسندگان [English]

  • nader shohani 1
  • borhan veysinab 2
  • Sohrab Amirian 3
  • mohammad hassan yazdani 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Payam Noor University, Ilam Center
2 Ph.D. student of geography and urban planning, Tabriz University
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Payame Noor University, Sanandaj Center
4 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

 
1- Introduction
Today, along with the widespread developments that have emerged in the social situation of women in human societies, we are witnessing changes in the demands of women's who seek to enforce their lost rights and achieve gender equity (Nabavey and Sigeda, 2014: 8). With overview at the status of women in the world and comparing them to the situation of men, it becomes clear that women are the most vulnerable in terms of opportunities and active participation in development (Adhami and Roghaneyin, 2009: 129). Gender inequality has different forms in the social, political, economic and cultural spheres; Including women's economic dependence on men based on less women's participation in the labor force and low wages for them, the political dependence of men's dominance on political power structures, the dependence on more men's authority and their decision-making power in the family and at work, dependence on men's power in defining social reality, dependence on men in protecting women from violence against other men and even the psychological dependence of women on men, due to emotional ties, reveals the need for attention to this issue not only as the soul of gender inequality, but also its consequences at the micro, intermediate, and macro levels (Hemati and Maktovbyan, 2013: 117). Therefore, with regard to the mentioned issues and the importance of gender equality, the purpose of the present study is to examine the status of gender inequality index in subcontinent countries of India. The status of this gender inequality has been studied in terms of economic, political, health and educational dimensions.
 
2- Research methodology
In the present study the research method is descriptive-analytic and is applicable to the type of research. Using a descriptive method based on analyzing statistics and information extracted from valid scientific documents and analyzing these indicators in the countries studied, the analytical method has been used. This comparative study was conducted on the basis of the Human Development Report and the Gender inequalities of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) from 2011 to 2014.
 
3- Discussion
In terms of GII, the highest positive change was for Nepal, with 0/079 of the least developed for Bhutan with zero percent change, and other countries, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar and India respectively, were 0/021, 0/011, 0/062, and 0/054 have had positive changes. In the whole of Nepal, progress has been greatest in three areas (global rank, regional rank, and GII) in terms of progress in other parts of the region.
The countries of the subcontinent have two different statuses in terms of health index: the first is that the four countries of Bhutan, Pakistan, Myanmar and India are in a position that is lower than the global average (to a lesser extent, this amount is less favorable) ) And in Bangladesh and Nepal, their situation is higher than the global average, so they are not well positioned on this benchmark.
The situation in the Indian subcontinent countries in terms of women's labor force participation rate index shows that Bangladesh, Nepal and India respectively have recovered by 1/4, 9 and 4 percent, while the countries of Bhutan, Pakistan and Myanmar are 13 , 2/7 and 22/6 with significant improvements in Myanmar. The highest percentage for this measure was for Myanmar with a score of 85/7 and the lowest for Pakistan with 24/4 percent.
An examination of the educational situation in the Indian subcontinent countries that during these three periods, the only country in Bhutan has progressed by 17.8 from 2/16  in 2011 to 34 in 2013. The examination of the status of other countries indicates a 4/2 percent drop in the country of Pakistan and a stagnation of the status and scores of other countries in the studied years. The country of Bhutan is ranked first with 34 present of women who have higher secondary education (high school) and Nepal, with 17/9 percent is ranked last.
 
4- Conclusion
Gender inequality in access to opportunities and economic, social and political, is one of the most important challenges for the countries of the Indian subcontinent. Today accepted the fact that no nation will be able to achieve sustainable development; women are deprived of basic rights in the community. The results of the two aspects of the investigation: The first aspect at the global level among the countries of the sub-continent indicates that, during the three rounds of any country not a good situation because the country of Myanmar (the country in terms of this indicator) during the three GII values 0/492, 0/437 and 0/430 asset classes 96, 80 and 83, which is indicative of the distance of this country and other countries with international standards. The second at the regional level show that during the three periods, despite relative progress in terms of GII have always Subcontinent but they always rank at the regional level has not changed, Myanmar and India in last place in the first rank have taken.
 
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Indian subcontinent
  • index of gender inequality
  • human development