مقایسۀ مسألۀ «نجات» در دو مکتب بودایی مادیَمیکه و شین‌‌شو جودو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای گروه ادیان و عرفان دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه ادیان و عرفان دانشگاه تهران

10.22111/jsr.2019.4677

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌‌ترین آموزه‌‌های دین بودا، مسأله رنج در زندگی انسان است. بودیزم اساساً به‌‌دنبال نجات انسان از رنج است. تعالیم اولیۀ بودا راه رهایی از رنج را آگاهی صرف از وجود رنج می‌‌دانست؛ اما با گسترش بودیزم در میان فرهنگ‌‌های مختلف و بسط اجتماعی آن، مکاتب مختلفی از بودیزم شکل گرفت که مسأله رنج و راه رهایی از آن را به‌‌گونۀ دیگری نسبت‌‌به تعالیم اولیۀ بودا تبیین می‌‌کردند. این مقاله در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که راه نجات انسان از چرخۀ رنج چیست؟ پاسخ این پرسش در دو مکتب مهم بودایی مادیمیکه و شین‌‌شو جودو بررسی شده‌‌است. در این پژوهش مفهوم نجات و نحوۀ دست‌‌یابی به آن و همچنین عوامل مؤثر در کسب آن در این دو مکتب بررسی شده‌‌است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی و مقایسه‌‌ای انجام شده‌‌است نشان می‌‌دهد که در مکتب مادیمیکه، نیروانه بدون وصول به معرفت برتر محقق نمی‌‌شود. این نوع از معرفت را ناگارجونا «شونیاته» می‌‌نامد که انسان با نفی معرفت نسبی آن را کسب می‌‌کند؛ اما در مکتب شین‌‌شو راه نجات انسان تکرار خالصانۀ ذکر نام «آمیدا»ست و نه هیچ عمل دیگری. در مکتب شین، انسان باید تنها با تکرار ذکر آمیدا خود را شایستۀ لطف او کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Salvation in Madhyamika and Shinshu Jodo

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Abdollahi 1
  • Mojtaba Zarvani 2
1 Ph.D. student of the Department of Religions and Gnostics, University of Tehran
2 Dept. of Religions and Mysticism,Faculty of Theology,University of Tehran.
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract:
Introduction: Two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu both of which are of Mahayanistic school,that  offer two different ways of achieving salvation. The school of Madhyamika, like most Buddhist schools, knows the way of salvation through knowledge, but the school of ShiShu knows the way of salvation through mentioning the name of Amida Buddha. In the process of rescuing the human position as one end of this flow, it is of particular importance. The different form of human presence and being active in this process can introduce different ways of salvation and vice versa. As well as rites and rituals can help people in this process, the basic issues in recognition of different approaches are in question of salvation.
The founders of the two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu offer two different ways and process of salvation. in spite of the similarities between the theoretical bases of the two sects, there are differences between the two schools in both the way of the human presence in the way of salvation, which is necessary and this article tries to address these differences and similarities. The aim of this study is to identify the concept of salvation and necessary arrangements, as well as explaining the role of man in the rescue process from the perspective of these two sects.
The first question: how is the rescue path in two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu?
Question 2: What is the role of man in the Salvation process?
 
Method of Study: In this paper, the research methodology is descriptive - analytical. The descriptions will be based on the sources related to both Buddhist texts, which are mainly from important and reliable sources in the studies of Buddhism. The analyses will also be based on the general approach of the paper, which is evaluated and compared to Madhyamika and ShinShu Jodo.
 
Statement: The name of Madhyamika school came from one of the most important works of Nagarjuna, the founder of this school, called Madhyamika Karika(Eliade,vol.9.71).  The Madhyamika school was inspired by the early Mahayanistic Sutras, which have been written in the second century bc.
Mahyamika recognize two kinds of knowledge, the "relative knowledge”[1]And the "superior knowledge"[2] .  Nagarjuna in Mahyamika Sastara about importance of distinguishing of these two kinds of knowledge has said: he/she who not understand the difference if two kinds of knowledge, Actually did not understand the truth of Buddhism( Suzuki.1907,95).
The relative knowledge: the relative knowledge that is made by the thought and reasoning of the individual, and the result of his relation to the world and the world, is called Samvwrthi. The term means covering and hiding the truth (Radhakrishnan. 658). That is to say, not with truth, but with the veil and veil of truth, which is an illusion compared to the truth.
The superior knowledge: in the school of Madhyamika, the 'superior knowledge ( parmarth) is that can destroy the roots of suffering. It is the knowledge that is the middle path; that is to say that things are neither eternal nor divine, neither possess nor lacking in substance.
The transition from the state of relative knowledge to higher state of knowledge is a change that occurs in human perception and his/her attitude . Salvation is a kind of change in the perspective and perception of the subject. So it 's nothing to get to the rescue . It is a special case of our existence.
Shiran, the founder of ShinShu Sect, does not know the way of Salvation as knowledge alone. He is loyal to many of the bases that have been accepted in the different sects of the Pure land( Mahayana), but he strengthens his way of rescue from suffering on the basis of belief in the love of Amida and mentioning of the name of Buddha.
From one point, the freedom from suffering in a Buddhist religion can be divided into three categories. One by “'Ethical obedience”[3], the second through "an inner focus”[4]And the third, which means acquiring "superior knowledge and illumination”[5]It is. These three methods, of course, depend on certain assumptions about human evolution that can be particularly active in achieving the rescue. In other words, human active presence is an introduction. The method that Shiran learned from its master Hunen is the believe in Amida Buddha finds in the first form. Of course, in ShinShu wen is talk about behavior , it does not necessarily mean ethical behaviors, but it is the everyday practice and everyday life of man. What should be taken into account is that things are done not in the will of man but of their power and will. Thus, faith in the context of compliance does not imply compliance. That is to say, to him, with all the devotion of his heart, that we shall be preserved. Thanks to her and take refuge in the shelter of her loving arms, in the hope of salvation in the future life(Oberlin,209). This is achieved through ethical obedience. Indeed, Shinran’s epistemology is based on moral structure and obedience.
Conclusion: the present study has examined the role of knowledge and their relation to the salvation of the two sects of Madhyamika and ShinShu, and also how can each of these two ways be able to save a Buddhist, and how is the process of salvation in these two school?
According to Nagarjuna the way of salvation is Para Jnana or superior knowledge not Jnana or knowledge alone. He calls the relative knowledge non real and defines superior knowledge as Shuniata(emptiness). The knowledge that is based on experience from the surroundings and through the senses cannot be true. A superior knowledge of life, that is to say, the emptiness of the mind from all knowledge, the negation of the inherent existence for the beings of the world. There is a little way in here a little in the way of ShinShu school. For in ShinShu, man must be free and detaches himself/herself from all sorts of knowledge. And he would go a step further, to put his will entirely to his side, and devote himself to his task.
But the difference is that, in the Madhyamika School, Superior knowledge which is cause of Salvation, lies in continuation and extension of that relative knowledge; and in fact, it is the whole of them. Whereas in ShinShu, one must not only abandon any learned knowledge, but by emptying his mind and his will and dedication to his will, he deserves to receive kindness and grace. It is the mercy of the man alone who works alone and brings him to the rescue. In other words, here is the knowledge of Amida which can do prepare salvation for man. Nobody can be free from suffering without grace of Amida Buddha.
Key Words: Madhyamika, knowledge, Amida, ShinShu , Mention.
 
 
 
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3- Dasgupta, Surendranath, A History of Indian Philosophy, vol.1,Cambrige, 1992.
4- Eliot. Charles, Japanese Buddhism.Routledge,2013.
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14-Suzuki. D. T, Shin Buddhism,Part One ,From  worldwisdom.com/public/library/default.aspx
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[1]-samwrthi-satya


[2]-paramartha-satya


[3]-sali


[4]-samadhi


[5]-prajna

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Madhyamika
  • knowledge
  • Amida
  • ShinShu
  • Mention