تأثیر مبانی فکری سید احمدخان هندی بر اندیشه‌‌های تفسیری وی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد علوم قرآن و حدیث دانشگاه الزهرا (س)

2 دانش‌‌آموختۀ دکتری علوم قرآن و حدیث دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

اشغال هندوستان توسط انگلیسی‌‌‌‌ها و شکست مسلمانان در انقلاب 1875م، شرایط نامطلوبی را بر مسلمانان هند تحمیل کرد. همین امر، جنبش‌‌های اصلاحی ازجمله حرکت اصلاح‌‌گرایانۀ سید احمدخان را در‌‌پی داشت. احمدخان در‌‌جهت آشتی علم و دین، با رویکردی نوگرایانه «تفسیر القرآن هو الهدی و الفرقان» را نگاشت. وی نسبت‌‌به هم‌‌عصران خود دارای مبانی فکری متفاوتی بود که منجر‌‌به تفسیر متفاوت قرآن شد؛ از‌‌این‌‌رو واکاوی مبانی فکری وی و زمینه‌‌های شکل‌‌گیری آن، مهم‌‌ترین مسألۀ این پژوهش است که با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی سعی در پاسخ به آن دارد. قرآن‌‌بسندگی، تجربه‌‌گرایی در تفسیر قرآن و عرفی‌‌دانستن زبان قرآن، به‌‌عنوان مهم‌‌ترین مبانی فکری احمدخان از دستاوردهای پژوهش حاضر است. این نوع نگرش تحت‌‌تأثیر شرایط اجتماعی- سیاسی آن روزگار شکل گرفته و بر آرای تفسیری احمدخان اثر گذاشته‌‌است. بر این اساس، معجزه، وحی، نبوت، ملائک و سایر مفاهیم غیرمادی به‌‌کار رفته در قرآن کریم را تأویل کرده و تأویل‌‌ها را بر مبنای مطابقت نظام تشریع با نظام تکوین توجیه کرده‌‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Siyyid Aḥmad Khān Hindi's Ideas on His Interpretative Thoughts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatḥyyih Fatāḥīzādeh 1
  • hosein afsardir 2
1 Professor of Quranic Science and Hadith of Al-Zahra University
2 Ph.D. student of Quran and Hadith of the University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

 
Detailed abstract
1-     Introduction
In the contemporary time, Qurān interpretation has been entered into new stage and from quantity and quality point of view, has been greatly changed revolutionary. In this period some Qurānic issues have been considered as the culmination of the discussions like: revelation, angels, Jinn, Satan, miracles, resurrection day and some Qur'anic science belonged subjects. There are various theories about Aḥmad Khān Viewpoints. 
Hence, based on these matters, to achieve the correct and logic prospect about Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts principles, it is necessary – while considering sociopolitical conditions – his intellectual foundations be extracted and their impressions degree be evaluated over the interpretive opinions of Aḥmad Khān. Therefore, this paper is going to answer to two essential questions:
1. What bases have affected the Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts be formed?
2. How much Aḥmad Khān intellectual principles have affected his interpretive opinions?
The purpose of this research is consideration of formation bases of Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts and the influence degree of these intellectual bases over his interpretive opinions. This research has been done with descriptive – analytic method and library information gathering manner.
 
2. Research methodology
The current study has employed a descriptive and analytic methodology and used a literature review research approach. The study is based on Tafsīr Sir Siyyid Aḥmad Khān (the Commentary of Qurān by Sir Siyyid Aḥmad Khān) to induce his thoughts and views; therefore a dozen of his comments are also presented here. The primary purpose of the current study has not been evaluating the accuracy of Siyyid Aḥmad Khān’s ideas.
3. Discussion
Aḥmad Khān was born at 17 September 1817 in Delhi. He was 19 years old that his father passed away and one year later, he was served in India government.
The first and most important Aḥmad Khān intellectual principle is Qur'ān sufficiency that means the only authentic religion source to learning the teachings is Qurān and the traditions (pl. Ḥadith) whether haven’t such a position or have limited place. One of the evidences that denotes to Aḥmad Khān Qurān sufficiency is his interpretation title.
He does not use of Ḥadith to interpret the Qurān and in some cases refers to traditions to approve his understanding. Sometimes considers them as a historic source too and has achieved the early Islam history through it.
Concerning cultural and political prevailed spaces over Aḥmad Khān and his fascination to the new sciences and paying attention to making peace between religion and science, he has followed empiricism by which has interpreted esoteric the Qurān miracles. He poses conformity of genesis and canonization books to vindicate his empiricism and based on that interprets esoteric the whole miracles, revelation, prophesy (Nubuwwah), angels and Satan. 
Aḥmad Khān believes that the early scholars have considered the prophesy as office and profession by which the God - like a king that from his associates makes someone minister and another person commander – gives prophesy to whoever wants or choices.          
He don’t consider the angels as real creatures but believes nature rules are the interpretation of the angels in the Qurān.    
Aḥmad Khān third principle is, considering of being common of the Qurān language. About Qurān language and quality of its interpretation, he says:  doubtlessly the Qur'ān is word of God; but has been revealed according to dialog and human word style; it means as we use some figures of speech – while speaking -  like: simile, trope, metaphor and allusion, or sometimes refer to famous word and sometimes speak based on addresser's degree of information and understanding and choice a special figure of speech or do befooling in somewhere and joke in somewhere else, the Qur'ān follows such attitude too and should be interpreted based on these principles. For instance, Aḥmad Khān believes the word "seven" in Qurān is for consistency of that time people opinion who believed in seven planet. In other term, the word heaven is used based on that time current dialogs.
Aḥmad Khān has interpreted the Qurān based on every of these triple principles. He has analyzed some part of miracles based on considering of being common of Qurān language and some part based on empiricism. In the following, cases that he based on considering of being common of the Qurān language principle has interpreted the miracles as a natural matter, are cited.     
 
4. Conclusion
The main results are summarized as follows:
1. The cultural-political situation of India in 19th century and the hard economic and cultural conditions of Muslims after the occupation of India by UK led Siyyid Aḥmad Khān to act as a social reformer to improve his society, especially Muslims’ intellectual life.
2. Due to false and superstitious claims in the commentaries (Tafsīr) of Quran by the Sunni scholars, Aḥmad Khān believed that Qurān is the only source to induce commentaries; therefore he set asides the Hadiths totally.
3. As a result of his distrust in sacred narratives, he focused on understanding Qurān only through Qurān. However, he had been expressing inaccurate interpretations due to extreme Qurānism.
4. Employing empiricism in interpreting the Qurānic verses to concord between science and religion and by using the compatibility between the systems of Takwīn (creation) and Tashrī’ (legislation), he tried to justify many spiritual things such and angels, revelations and the miracles of the prophets.
5. Believing in the “conventional (‘urf) language of Qurān, Ahmad Khan interpreted some stories, such as the quarrel between angles and Allah or the seven sky, based on colloquial style, ignoring common tafsīr works.
6. His bases for tafsīr had widely dominated his interpretations of Qurānic discussions and all of the subjects, including moral and historical discussions, aḥkām and religious arguments.
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Siyyid Aḥmad Khān Hindi
  • Qurān
  • Experientialism
  • Interpretation
  • Quranic Language