همانندی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌های بنیادین مثنوی با اوپانیشادهای اولیه در وجود‌‌شناسی و معرفت‌‌شناسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ادیان و عرفان، واحد یادگار امام خمینی(ره)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در میان ابعاد مختلف ادیان، می‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌توان گفت بُعد عرفان از بیشترین ظرفیت همدلی پیروان ادیان برخوردار است و بیشترین همانندی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ها از این رهگذر حاصل می‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌شود؛ ازاین‌‌رو این نوشتار متکفل بررسی همانندی برخی آموزه‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌های مهم عرفانی در مثنوی به‌‌عنوان نمونۀ برجسته‌‌ای از ادبیات اسلامی و اوپانیشادهای اولیه به‌‌مثابۀ یکی از کتاب‌‌های مهم دین هندویی است. موضوعات مهم این پژوهش عبارت‌‌اند از: وحدت وجود، اتحاد برهمن و آتمن و فنا‌‌ءفی‌‌الله، و رستگاری مبتنی‌‌بر معرفت. این مقاله درصدد آن است که اولاً همدلی این دو اثر را از رهگذر همانندی آموزه‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌های عرفانی نشان دهد. ثانیاً به مدد مثنوی، توجه جمهور مطالعه‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌گران را به آثار مهم عرفانی هندویی معطوف کند. درنتیجه می‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌توان گفت، علاوه‌‌بر همانندی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌هایی که حاصل فطرت معنویت‌‌گرای بشر است و در آثار مورد بحث در این نوشتار به نیکوی دریافته می‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌شود، همانندی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌های مثنوی با اوپانیشادهای اولیه قابل‌‌تأمل است. این پژوهش با رویکرد متن‌‌محورانه و روش تحلیلی-مقایسه‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ای و بر مبنای منابع کتابخانه‌‌ای انجام پذیرفته‌‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Principal similarities of Mathnawi and Classical Upanishads in Ontology and Epistemology

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdolhosein Latifi
Assistant Professor, Department of Religions and Mysticism, University of yadegar Imam Khomeini, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
Extensive Abstract :
Introduction: mysticism which can be said is more or less an important aspect of the different religions, indicates to more similarities among the people in comparison with other aspects like jurisprudence, theology, and rituals. These similarities in some cases are so considerable that the experts cannot believe in interactions of the religions; or consider natural needs and the spirituality of human beings as the mere cause of these similarities.  Of course, it can be said that sometimes both of these points of view can be the basis of the similarities. The latter point of view can open a vast horizon in front of the readers, because this outlook includes the two authentic approaches i.e. the comparative and fusionism.
Considering these observations, the author tried to investigate the similarities in the two important scopes of mysticism and spirituality: Mathnawi Manawi in the Islamic mysticism (Sufism), as one of the most significant inspiring fields of mysticism and spirituality; and also, the elementary Upanishads in Hinduism.
    The cause of selection of Mathnawi and Upanishads is that both of these two varieties are mostly and off course, with a mystical and spiritual attitude, based upon the scriptures. In other words, Mathnawi directly and indirectly related to Quran and the elementary or classical Upanishads propose a new and mystical sight of the most important teachings of Rig Vida as the basic sacred book.
Thus, this research seeks to reply to these questions: 1.Which ontological and epistemological arguments are proposed in this article? 2. What are the similarities between Mathnawi and the elementary Upanishads in the topics studied in this essay?
The research’s objectives are: 1.Proposing the ontological and epistemological disputations in the two investigated scopes, the significance of mysticism as an appropriate field for strengthening human being’s sympathy is emphasized. 2. By means of Mathnawi Manawi, the mystical and spiritual treasuries of Hinduism are considered, if not profoundly, by the popular readers.
2- Research methodology
This research is carried out in accordance with textual achievement, by the analytical-comprehensive method based upon library. Thus, as it is obvious from the title of this article, in the investigation of similarities, as long as the article permits us, some couples of Mathnawi and some portions of the important Upanishads will be referred. It should be said that the short name of mathnawi Manawi i.e. Mathnawi is used in this article. Moreover, everywhere the term of Upanishads is used, it means the elementary or classical Upanishads.
3- Discussion
3-1- The conception of monism in the elementary Upanishads and Mathnawi
Molana like the sage authors of the Upanishads, believes that beyond the changing world there is a constant and eternal truth which the world is its form.
Many portions found in the Upanishads, are comprehensible by this theory of monism that God is the all, and all is God. So, the world is not a creature distinguished from God… God is the world, and the world is God...(Staice, 1358: 214)
3-2- Salvation and its relationship with knowledge in Upanishads and Mathnawi
Salvation in the Upanishads and also mathnawi has a profound relationship with the way of attaining to knowledge and its kinds and also the point of view about the world. The knowledge, as it is in  Mathnawi, has some kinds in the Upanishads. In the other words, in both of these collections, knowledge sometimes belongs to the concrete and external affairs and sometimes depends to the essential and fundamental ones; and this is the latter kind that causes the salvation.
The perfect man knows that he should seek after God in himself and should not suppose the virtual affairs as truth. So, he simultaneously understands the human and divine truth. (Zamani, 1374: 495-6)
4- Conclusion:
The similarity of Hindu thought and especially Upanishadic mysticism with Molana’s mysticism cannot be denied. Besides the fundamental origins of molana’s thought i.e. Quran and Hadith (Tradition), strong traces of Indian thought in Mathnawi are not deniable. This topic would be more obvious if we observe this point that Molana’s mysticism has been notably influenced by mysticism of Khorasan which has been in neighborhood of India.
The significance of Upanishadic teachings are so prominent that their traces and signs can be found apparently in Mathnawi. Off course, the similarities originated from man’s spiritual nature which are not essentially necessitated to the interaction, cannot be denied. But the very approach i.e. believing in similarities originated from the man’s nature is also valuable and effective because it can be very helpful for finding these similarities
 
 

Darashokuh, Mohammad, The biggest secret Upanishads, edited by Jalali nayini, Tehran, entesharat elmi, 1381.
Din Luis,  franklin, Molana yesterday to today, east to west, translated by Hasan lahuty, Nashr nanak, 1390.
Hinels r. Comprehensive dictionary of religions, translated by a. Pashaii, Qom, markaz motaleat adian va madhaheb, 1386.
Jalali satar, Mystical love, Tehran, Nashr markaz, 1375.
Radhakrishnan, Serevepali, The history of philosophy in east and west, translated by khosro jahandari, Tehranentesharat amir kabir., 1382.
Shaigan, dariush, Indian religions and philosophical schools, Tehran, entesharat amir kabir, 1389.
Shidi, sayed jafar, Sharh mathnawi, vol. 4, Tehran, nashr elmi farhangi, 1376.
Zamani, Karim, Enameller of love, Tehran, nashr nei, 1393.
___________, sharh jamea mathnawi, vol. 1, Tehran, entesharat etelaat, 1374.
Zarin kub, Abdolhosein, Secret of the flute, vol. 1, Tehran, entesharat elmi 1390.