سیری در کتاب «چمنستان» اثر آنندرام مخلص

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌‌آموختۀ دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه سمنان

10.22111/jsr.2019.4691

چکیده

آنندرام (Anand Ram)، متخلّص‌‌‌‌به‌‌ «مخلص»، شاعر و نویسندۀ پارسی‌‌گوی‌‌ قرن دوازدهم هجری، در سیالکوت لاهور به‌‌ دنیا آمد. مخلص‌‌ در شاعری‌‌، از استاد خود بیدل دهلوی‌‌ پیروی‌‌ می‌‌کرد و از بهترین شاگردان‌‌ او بود. علاوه‌‌بر قریحۀ آنندرام‌‌ در شاعری‌‌، ذوق‌‌ نکته‌‌یابى‌‌ و نقّادی‌‌ وی‌‌ نیز شایستۀ توجه‌‌ است و سبک‌‌ نگارش‌‌ او در نثر هم به‌‌ متانت‌‌ و روانى‌‌ مشهور بوده‌‌‌‌است؛ به‌‌گونه‌‌ای که مخلص را یکی از بهترین نویسندگان آن روزگار خوانده‌‌اند. «چمنستان» یکی از آثار منثور آنندرام،‌‌ مجموعه‌‌ای‌‌ است‌‌ از لطیفه‌‌ها، کنایات‌‌ و نکات‌‌ ظریف‌‌، اشاراتى‌‌ بر احوال‌‌ بعضى‌‌ از معاصران و توصیفاتى‌‌ از درختان‌‌، گل‌‌ها و میوه‌‌ها که در چهار «چمن» و هر چمن در دو «گل‌‌دسته» ترتیب یافته و در سال 1159ﻫ.ق نگاشته شده‌‌است. این مقاله که به روش توصیفی نوشته شده، به‌‌دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال خواهد بود که چمنستان شامل چه مطالب، موضوعات و نکات برجسته‌‌ای بوده و نثر مخلص در این اثر چگونه است. در چمنستان با نکات و اشارات ارزشمند تاریخی، ادبی، اجتماعی و زبانی روبه‌‌رو می‌‌شویم که مطالعه و بررسی آن می‌‌تواند به شناخت بیشتر ویژگی‌‌های نثر نویسندگان هندی پارسی‌‌گوی آن دوره و نیز آگاهی از برخی اصطلاحات، آداب و رسوم و نکات تاریخی و ادبی کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Excursion in Chamanistan Compilation by Anand Ram Mukhlis

نویسندگان [English]

  • hassan yaghoubi 1
  • esmat Esmaeili 2
1 Ph.D. student of Persian language and literature of Semnan University
2 Associate professor of Persian language and literature in Semnan University
چکیده [English]

1-      Introduction
Anand Ram mukhlis, Persian poet and author of the 12th century, was born in the Sialkot district of North Lahor in the Punjab. His birth was between 1107 and 1111 AH. He followed his master, Bidel Dehlavi in poetry and he was one of his best students, but we do not know in his poetry the complexity of  Bidel's  poem. his prose style has been known to sobriety and Simplicit, So that He is considered as one of the bestwriters of the time
Anand Ram Mukhlis's works consist of: Karname-ye eshgh, Hengame-ye eshgh, Pari khaneh, Rogha'at-e Mukhlis, Mer'at-ol estelah, Chamanistan, Badaye' vaghaye', Divan-e ash'ar, Tazkirat-oshoara, Masnaviat-e Mukhlis, Long letter, Entekhab-e Tohfe-ye Sami, Rahat-ol afras (Anosheh, 2001:2324-2325).
Chamanistan is one of the works written on the subcontinent in the imitation of the Golistan-e Saadi Shirazi. In Chamanistan sometimes we see a beautiful and colorful prose. Anand Ram Mukhlis tries to create a poetic work by using the literary arrays.
One of the main questions of study is to determine in the Chamanistan what are topics and important points, and what is the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose style in this work.
Anand Ram Mukhlis is one of the 12th century poets and writers in the subcontinent. He has the influence of composition, story, dictionary and letter-writing. It is one of his prose works that only once printed by lithography in 1877 AD in India. Because of the importance and value of this book, this paper seeks to introduce and examine the characteristics of this work.
 
2-       Research Methodology
The method of research in this paper is based on the library method and content analysis based on peresentation of evidence. Therefore Camanistan was studied and was show prominent topics and points, and characteristics of  Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose. Also whit the study and research in related Mukhlis's works, has been used for the richness of this paper.
 
3-      Discussion
Camanistan, one of the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose work is a collection of jokes, ironies and nuances, some contemporary and some indication of status descriptions of trees, flowers and fruits. Subject matters organized on four grass and grass on the two bouguet.
This work written in 1746 AD and printed by lithography in Nolkeshvar press in india in 72 pages  in 1877 AD (story, 1927:1/6123).
This book contains special information about the kings and princes and ministers like Abbas shah-e Safavi, Awrang zib Alamgir, Sa'dollah khan, Omdat-olmoluk, Jahan ara Beygom, that no existe in other history books (Zohur-oddin Ahmad, 1977: 166-167).
Also Anand Ram Mukhlis described some Indian customs and other contries. For example in the 31and 32 pages, he dealt with the Seti Hindu tradition and He narrate the event that he has seen exactly. in detail about the kinds of flowers, fruits and trees, wich showed his interest in growing the flower and plant and his extensive information in this regard. In this book, he described only 44 various of tulips. Mukhlis uses Indian words in his prose and combines Hindi and Persian names together, but he warns beginners of doing this (Anosheh, 1380: 2324).
In this invalauable work, we face stories of poets, writers and artists. For his devotion to Sa'eb Tabrizi, like the rest of his works, he talk more to him than other poets. He expresses beautiful tales of his memories in meetings with his contemporary poets.Anand Ram Mukhlis in many instances, in this work, wrote verses of contemporary poets and his verses. Anand Ram Mukhlis refers to some strange things and events that he has seen or heard, For example a square board called the Choki.
The stylistic features of Anand Ram Mukhlis, like the other clerks of the course, use local words in prose, although he have been used rhythmical and poetic phrases (Hashemi,1996:194).
 
4-       Conclusion
Camanistan, one of the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose work is a collection of jokes, ironies and nuances, some contemporary and some indication of status descriptions of trees, flowers and fruits. Subject matters organized on four grass and grass on the two bouguet, that written in 1746 AD. Chamanistan is one of the works written on the subcontinent in the imitation of the Golistan-e Saadi. In Chamanistan sometimes we see a beautiful and colorful prose. Anand Ram Mukhlis tries to create a poetic work by using literary arrays. his prose style has been known to sobriety and Simplicit , So that he is considered as one of the bestwriters of the time. Mukhlis uses Indian words in his prose and combines Hindi and Persian names together, but he warns beginners of doing this.
In this work, we face important historical, literary, social and linguistic points, including: valuable historical references and some otherlands, the introduction of flowers and various plants,  poet's stories and poems, jokes, strange things and events, indian customs, the use of indian words, ancient terms, etc.
 
 
 
References:
 
1-      Anand RamMukhlis, Chamanistan,Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishor, 1877.
2-      Anand RamMukhlis , Hengame-ye eshgh, Ed. Hassan Yaghoubi, Tehran: Safir-e Ardehal, 2016.
3-      Anand RamMukhlis, Merat-ol estelah, Ed. Shekher Chander, Tehran: Sokhan,2016.
4-      Anosheh, hassan, Daneshname-ye adab-e Farsi dar Shebh-e gharreh, Vol.4, Tehran: Publication of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, 2001.
5-      B. Ahmad, "Anand Ram Mokhles", Available from:www.iranicaonline.org, 1985.
6-      Bhagvan Das, Safine-ye Hendi, Ed. Sayyed Shah Mahammad Ataorrahman Kakuy, Panta: Department of Arabic and Persian Research, 1958.
7-       Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, Loghat-nameh, Tehran: Tehran Uuniversity, 1998.
8-      Hashemi, Mahmoodeh, Tahavvol-e Nasr-e Farsi dar Shebhe Gharreh, Islamabad: Persian Research center of Iran and,1996.
9-       Hoseini, Seyedeh Khorshid Fatemeh, Jame'eh shenasi dar asar-e Anand Ram Mukhlis, Qand-e paarsi, No. 73&74, P.178-189, fall and winter 2016.
10-  McLeod James, George, Anand Ram mukhlis his life and works, Delhi: Henrietta Yasmin James, 2010.
11-   Mohammad Hamidollah, Mokhtasar Urdu loghat, New Delhi: Ghowmi konsul baray-e forugh-e Urdu zaban, 2003.
12-  Musavi ,Sayyed Abdorreza, Mohannadat, Tehran: Sure-ye mehr, 2009.
13-  Mir Ghodratollah Ghasem, Majmue-ye naghz, Vol.2, Ed. Mohammad Shirani, Lahore: Panjab university, 1933.
14-  Nowshahi, Aref, Siah bar Sefid, Tehran: Miras-e Maktoob, 2010.
15-  Parshad Dibi, Asar-oshoara-ye honud, Delhi: matba Razavi, 1885
16-  Radfar, Abolghasem, Tarjemeh va ta'sir-eshe'r-e farsi dar shebh-e gharreh, Qand-e paarsi, No. 14, P.61-70, winter 2001.
17-  Sayyed Abdollah, Adabiyat-e Farsi dar mian-e Hendovan, Tr. Mohammad Eslam Khan, Tehran: Mahmud Afshars Foundation, 1992.
18-  Storey, C.A., Persian Literature, London: Luzac & Company,LTD, 1927.
19-  aleh Daghestani, Ali Gholi, Riaz-osh Shoara, Vol. 4, Ed. Sayyed Mohsen Naji Nasrabadi, Tehran: Asatir, 2005.
20-  Zohur ul-din Ahmad, Pakistan min Farsi adab, Lahore: Punjab University, 1977.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anand Ram Mukhlis
  • chamanistan
  • subcontinent
  • prose