خدمات تمدنی امیر فتح‌‌الله شیرازی در دربار اکبر شاه گورکانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه معارف اسلامی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان

چکیده

ایرانیان مسلمان با پی‌‌‌‌ریزی تمدن ایرانی-اسلامی و انتقال آن به شبه‌‌قاره هند نقش مؤثری در پیشرفت‌‌های تمدنی ایفا کردند. نخبگان ایرانی که با توجه به عوامل دافعۀ‌‌‌‌ موجود در ایران و عوامل جاذبه‌‌آفرین در هندوستان به دربار گورکانیان مهاجرت کردند؛ به‌‌دلیل شایستگی‌‌‌‌های فراوان خود توانستند منشأ خدمات مؤثری در حوزه‌‌های مختلف تمدنی شوند. یکی از این نخبگان، امیر فتح‌‌الله شیرازی است که با درایت و شایستگی خود، در مظاهر تمدنی دولت اکبرشاه مانند صنعت، تقویم، نظام دیوانی و علوم نقلی و عقلی تحولات مهمی ایجاد کرد. هدف پژوهش که با استفاده از روش توصیفی–تحلیلی تدوین شده، تبیین آثار حضور امیر فتح‌‌الله در دربار اکبر شاه گورکانی در حوزۀ تمدنی است. نشر آموزه‌‌های تشیّع توسط امیر فتح‌‌الله در دربار اکبر شاه، تک‌‌بُعدی‌‌نبودن تأثیرگذاری وی در حوزۀ تمدن، جایگاه والای او در دربار اکبر شاه و گسترش آثار فرهنگ و تمدن ایرانی- اسلامی در مظاهر فرهنگ و تمدن دولت گورکانیان، از یافته‌‌های پژوهش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Amir Fathollah Shirazi's civilization services at Akbar Shah Gurkani court

نویسنده [English]

  • Ahmad reza Behnia far
Assistant professor of Islamic Education Dept,Eslamic Azad university,Damghan branch
چکیده [English]

    Muslim Iranians building a civilization of Iran is Islam and transfer it to other communities, including the Indian subcontinent, played an important role in the progress of civilization. Iranian elite DafhY in Iran and the role of entrepreneurs in India to the court of Mughal attractions emigrated, because of its many merits able to source effective services in various spheres of civilization. One of the elite, Fath Allah Shirazi Amir is with wisdom and competence, the civilization of Akbar Shah, such as industry, calendars and date, the system rational and traditional sciences of the Court and important developments created.and the Mughal civilization important finding of the research.
 
1-     Introduction
The Iranian people have played a significant role in the dynamics of Islamic culture, given their historical and civilization backgrounds, as well as their acceptance of the Islamic religion. The nation of Iran is a nation that, in addition to integrating its culture and civilization with Islam and its culture, has established a unique culture and civilization, called Iranian-Islamic culture and civilization, and transferred it to distant lands such as the Indian subcontinent. The stages of Iranian participation in the transfer of Iranian-Islamic civilization to India are not limited to the early centuries of the emergence of Islam. According to sources, this process continued for centuries, even during the Mogul attacks, and later in the period of the Ilkhanae, Timurid, and Safavi. The most effective and efficient way of the transferring the cultural and civilization concepts and manifestations from Iran to India was the emigration of the Iranian elite from various social spectra to India, which took place in different times and for many reasons in the land of origin, namely, Iran and destination (India). This emigration was able to influence the structure of India's political-social and cultural sovereignty and help develop the civilization of this land. Many of these immigrants, due to their ability and competence, were able to provide effective services in various aspects of civilization in the government of the Gurkani. One of the immigrant elites in the court of Akbar Shah, was Amir Fathollah Shirazi. He was one of the most influential Iranian intellectuals in the rational and traditional sciences, the calendar industry and the judicial system. And so, in the court of the king of Mughal, he was nicknamed ' Adud al-Dawla'.
 
2-     Research methodology
The present article is a descriptive-analytic one in terms of research method which is done based on library resources. In this method, after introducing Amir Fathollah Shirazi and explaining how he entered Adel Shah Bijapuri's court and then his departure to the court of Akbar Shah, we examined the ups and downs of Amir Fathollah until his death in 1010 AH. The services he has provided in the field of civilization is the main part of the paper that, in various dimensions of civilization, such as the calendar and the new history of the Akbar court, the role he played by the Iranian philosophy of intellectual science in Indian affairs and industry, as well as the actions he did in the financial and tax system of the Court of Justice, has been investigated and analyzed.
 
3-     Discussion
Amir Fathollah Shirazi, son of Habibollah, known as Shah Fathollah Shirazi, was a fellow from Shiraz' Sayyid, who, in theoretical and practical wisdom, as well as the natural sciences and other rational and traditional sciences, is considered as a scholar of that time. At first, he was a professor at Mansouriyeh School in Shiraz, and spent some time in the presence of Imam Gholi Mirza, brother of Shah Isma'il II Safavid. After the murder of Imam Gholi Mirza, Amir Bijapuri was sent to Deccan at the invitation of Adel Shah Bijapuri and stayed there for a while. Two years after the death of Adel Shah in 990 AH, Amir Fathollah was summoned to Agra on the invitation of Akbar Shah Mughal. Amir Fathollah attained a high status at Akbar Shah court. In 999 AH, the title of Amir al-Molk was granted to him and after that he was assigned to three thousand posts. (Ebad-e-Rehman, 1973: 408/1 -409) In the same year, Adud al-Dawla and the leaders of all India were addressed to the Amir. In 1010 AH, Amir Fathollah Shirazi accompanied Akbar Shah in his visit of Kashmir, but he became seriously ill when returned. The treatments did not work, and eventually he died in Kashmir. Akbar Shah was very saddened by the death of Amir Fathollah and he said about the position of the Amir: "Amir Fathollah was our ambassador, our philosopher, our physician and our astronomer. If he fell into the hands of the foreigners and they demanded all of our treasures in return, we considered it as a great benefit" (Aalami, 1877: 589-590). Amir Fathollah had a great influence in Akbar Shah's court in various aspects, so that he stablished a new initiative calendar based on the Persian culture and the actual Moon and yearly calculations. He transmitted Iran's philosophical thoughts to India. Since the time of Amir Fathollah's presence, the promotion and study of philosophical thoughts and sciences became popular in Indian schools and Seminaries. Amir Fathollah recognizes Mulla Sadra Shirazi' thoughts to the Hindus, and after his presence in the court of the Mogul, teaching of Mulla Sadra's thoughts was common. Amir Fathollah, in the field of Asian Industries and Techniques, made a rod that was grinding wheat using wind power. He also invented a gun that throw twelve bullets in one shot. Other inventions include a mirror that shows objects far and near in a strange way. Amir Fathollah's actions in the area of finance and taxation turned the Supreme Court into the House of People's Hope, so that the result was to facilitate the collection and calculation of land revenues, protecting elders against bullying and eliminating the defects of the rules governing silver coins. In the area of justice, Amir Fathollah Shirazi's services prevented corruption, especially corruption committed by clergy and judges.
 
 
4-     Conclusion
The following results are obtained from the discussions on Amir Fathollah Shirazi's civilization services:

The emigration of Iranian elites, such as Amir Fathollah Shirazi to the Indian subcontinent, created a new era in this land, so that the development of the cultural and civilization of Indian governments, including the Mogul government, is one of the important results of the Iranian presence.
The influence of Amir Fathollah on civilization was not monotonous on the Mogul government, especially during the Akbar Shah, but he was effective in various aspects of science, technology and bureaucracy, and he also possessed the Indicators of Iranian-Islamic Civilization in different directions to Indian subcontinent.
The publication of the Shi'i teachings in northern India, including the Sunni Mogul, was one of the works of Amir Fathollah Shirazi.
The value and position of Amir Fathollah in the government of the Mogul was so high that Akbar Shah was willing to take all the treasures against recapture of Amir Fathollah, if he was captured by foreigners. This indicates the status of Amir Fathollah's civilization in the Gurkani government.
Given the existence of repulsive factors in Iran, the lack of these scientific elites could have led to the backwardness of Iranian society at that time and even the future.

 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amir Fathollah Shirazi
  • Akbar Shah Gurkani
  • Islamic Iran-Islamic

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