تحلیل مکانی-فضایی شکل ‏گیری و فعالیت گروه‏های تروریستی در نواحی مرزی افغانستان با پاکستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه امام حسین(ع)

4 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران مرکز

چکیده

در چند دهۀ گذشته، برخی از کشورها و مناطق جغرافیایی به زمین بارور و کانون جغرافیاییِ شکل‏گیری و فعالیت گروه‏های تروریستی تبدیل شده‏اند. یکی از مهم‌‌ترین و معروف‌‌ترین این فضاها، نواحی مرزی مشترک بین دو کشور افغانستان و پاکستان است که گروه‏های تروریستی متعددی مانند طالبان، شبکۀ حقانی و دیگر گروه‏های افراطی را در خود جای داده‌‌است. در این پژوهش که با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیل انجام شده‌‌است، ضمن بررسی الگوی مکانی- فضایی حملات گروه‏های تروریستی در دو کشور افغانستان و پاکستان، به بررسی زمینه‏های عمدۀ شکل‏گیری و فعالیت این گروه‏ها در نواحی مرزی این دو کشور پرداخته شده‌‌است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می‏دهد که ضعف در اعمال اقتدار و حاکمیت دولت در نواحی مرزی که باعث شکل‌‌گیری فضاهای بی‏دولت شده‌‌است و همین‌‌طور ضعف مشروعیت و نفوذ اجتماعی دولت درمقابل حاکمیت غیررسمی و مشروعیت اجتماعی گروه‏ها و نهادهای غیردولتی در این نواحی، مهم‌‌ترین زمینه‏های شکل‏گیری و فعالیت گروه‏های تروریستی در نواحی مرزی افغانستان با پاکستان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial analysis of formation and activity of terrorist groups In Afghanistan's border with Pakistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Dabiri 1
  • Mohammad Reza Hafeznia 2
  • Seyed Yahya Safavi 3
  • Mohammad Akhbari 4
1 Ph.D of Political geography, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Professor of Political geography, Tarbiat Modares University
3 Professor of Political geography, Imam Hussein University
4 Associate Professor of Political geography, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In the last few decades some of geographical areas and countries became a geographical center and fertile ground for formation and activity of terrorist groups. The most famous and important of such these areas are common boundaries between Pakistan and Afghanistan that placed different armed and terrorist groups inside themselves such as Taliban and Haqqani Network and other terrorist groups. at this research, which performs with analytical-descriptive, meanwhile evaluation of spatial pattern of attacking terrorist groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan have been discussed The main reasons for the formation and activity of these groups in the border areas These two countries. attained results from this research show that weaknesses in the actions of authority and sovereignty in the border areas that have created ungoverned spaces and also the weakness of the legitimacy and social influence of the state in contrast to unregulated sovereignty and social legitimacy of other non-state groups and institutions in this area are the most important reasons for the formation and activity of terrorist groups.
Extensive Abstract

1.     Introduction

One of the challenges that many governments face with it, is the formation of terrorist groups and their attacks against citizens and state forces. Meanwhile some of countries in the world and some regions become the main centers of formation and activity for terrorist groups. Afghanistan and Pakistan, specially their border areas are the most important spaces and locations that a lot of terrorist groups such as Taliban, Al-Qaeda, Haqani Network and other extremist groups are active there. There are different theories and approaches about the causes and reasons of formation and activity of terrorist groups in this geographical region. However it seems that " space without sovereignty " theory because of emphasizing on unauthority of central government and " social influence of government " theory because of paying attention to soft power of government, are more complete theoretical frameworks for explaining  and describing terrorism phenomenon in this area. So this research using these two theories wants to analyze the formation and activity of terrorist groups in border areas between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

2.     Research method

Generally the research method of this article is descriptive- analytical. For gathering data we used from library and documentary methods.

3.     Discussion

Afghanistan is one of the countries that always attacked by terrorist groups in three last decades. Nevertheless stronger attacks occur in border areas of this country with Pakistan that have 100 miles in length. South and east of Afghanistan with Helmand province are main centers of attacks by terrorist groups. Helmand and Nangarar cities have been experienced 10 percent and 8 percent of terrorist attacks respectively and two big cities of Afghanistan, Kabol and Kandahar have been experienced 7 percent of these attacks. Pakistan is amongst countries that strongly affected by terrorist attacks too. Terrorist groups in Pakistan have strong effects on neighbor country, Afghanistan, and most attacks occur in border areas near Afghanistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhaw state in this country is experienced most attacks spatially. “ Parachynar “ city in ethnic federal areas of Pakistan that is the nearest place to Kabol in Afghanistan, has the highest mortality rate with 12 dead in every terrorist attacks. In recent years, ethnic federal areas experienced the most violence. Between 2002 and 2011, over 19 percent of whole attacks of Pakistan occurred in this area.
Afghanistan and Pakistan are considered bankrupt countries that lacking ability to exercise authority across their terrestrial territory. In some areas, the authority and sovereignty of Afghanistan and Pakistan countries has tough rivals such as extremist groups and religious political elites that supporting these groups and also in some areas, government authority applied incompletely and in some spaces, government completely has abandoned the sovereignty of the land and extremist groups including Taliban taking the control of land and authority. Afghanistan and Pakistan governments don't have necessary sufficiency and authority for executing law and sovereignty over their territories, so security costs for terrorist activities are very little in these two countries specially border areas. So terrorist groups can develop their authority with the minimum involvement and supervision from  government.  Furthermore, they use of these non-government spaces and not restrained areas for establishing social, political or economical independent institutions. On the other hand, such spaces are considered great human resources for terrorist groups. Because of poverty, dissatisfaction, insecurity, discrimination and ethnic-religious intolerance, people of these countries become members of these groups easily.
One of the important factors for any government for being success in governing and controlling the security is the rate of social influence and legitimacy of that government among various religious, ethnic and social groups. The government influence in common border areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan is less in comparison with non governmental institutions, specially schools and religious figures (Mullahs). Developing religious schools specially schools of Deobandi cult, resulted in expansion of radical and fundamentalist perceptions about religion and increased political role of Mullahs in tribal community. On the other hand, Afghanistan and Pakistan governments lack of pervasive political thought that can encompass all social classes and ethnic religious groups in their countries. In this situation, local religious figures were raised as main political mediator and in most of the time were raised as pugnacity propagandist. Developing non official and ideological education system causes that official education system is ignored by residents of these areas. So in these areas,   governmental institutions have the least attendance.

4.     Conclusion

In last decades, Afghanistan and Pakistan were amongst countries face with the most activities of terrorist and extremist groups. From spatial and geographical perspective, common border areas between these two countries strongly experienced the presence of non- governmental groups and mostly violent groups so that consider these areas as terrorism geographical centers on a global scale. Inability of government in exercising authority in border provinces and areas besides the low social legitimacy influence of government among some ethnic religious groups, focused in border areas, has been provided the raise of extremist groups and religious-political elites. In fact, absence of governmental institutions and organizations in these areas caused the formation of a space without authority and government. This factor besides the social legitimacy of some extremist groups caused that government faces with rival authority of these groups so the opportunity of formation and activity of terrorist groups has been provided.
    
References:
1. Asian Development Bank (2010), Post Crisis Needs Assessment Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
2. Bakht, Naudir(2008), Epistemology of Bloch and Balochistan: A History Political View, History and Culture, Vol. XXX, No1.
3. Braithwaite, Alex,“Resisting Infection: How State Capacity Conditions Conflict Contagion,” Journal of Peace Research, 47, 3:311–319, 2010.
4. Cohen, Aaul Bernard (2008),Geopolitics of the Word System, Translated by: Abbas Kardan, Theran International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press.
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6. Dorronsoro, Gilles (2009), The Taliban’s Winning Strategy in Afghanistan, Carnegie Endowment for International peace.
7. Etaat, Javad, Dabiri, Ali Akbar(2016), Terroeism, Place Diemenation and Global Perspectives, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University Press.
8. Feyyaz, Muhammad(2013), Conceptualizing Terrorism Trend Patterns in Pakistan– an Empirical Perspective , Perspectives on terrorism, Vol 7, No.
9. Giustozzi, Antonio,(2007) Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan. London: HURST Publishers Ltd.
10. Global  Peace  Index  (2015),  Measuring  Peace,  its  Causes  and  its  Economic Value, the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP).
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12. John O’Loughlin, Frank D. W. Witmer, and Andrew M. Linke, (2010), The Afghanistan-Pakistan Wars, 2008–2009: Micro-geographies, Conflict Diffusion, and Clusters of Violence, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2010, 51, No. 4, pp. 437–471.
13. Khatami Khosrow Shahi, Seyyed Ibrahim(2004), Asia Book (3), Special for Afghanistan after the Taliban, Tehran, International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press.
14.Kushki, Mohammad Sadegh, Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad (2014), Perspectives on ethnic conflicts in Pakistan; Case study: City of Karachi, Quarterly of political and international research, No. 20.
15. Malik, Iftikhar Haider(2008), The history of Pakistan, Greenwood Press
Mehboob, S.R (2011), Governance and Militancy in Pakistan, s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Center for Strategic and International Studies.
16. Mlik, r Iftikhar H.(2002), Religious Minorities in Pakistan, Minority Rights Group International.
17. Mohammadi, Ali(2010), Asia Book (5), Special for Pakistan, Extremism in Pakistan: Facts and Strategies, Tehran, International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press.
18. Pishgahi  Fard,  Zahra, Qudsi, Amir(2007), Investigating and analyzing Pakistan's geopolitical features and its role in relations with other countries, Geographic Research, No. 63.
19. Rabas Angel, et al (2007), Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks, Published by the RAND Corporation.
20. Rashid, Ahmed (2008) Descent into Chaos: How the War Against Islamic Extremism is Being Lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia. London: Penguin Group.
 
21. Rettig, Mike (2013), Mitigating the Threat Posed by Ungoverned Spaces Cost-effective Proposals to Enhance U.S. and Global Security, Policy Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2.
22. Shafiei, Nozar, Mahmoudi, Zahra (2012), Examining the Reasons of Pakistan's Importance in the War on Terrorism, Central Asian and Caucasus Quarterly, No. 87.
23. Ullah, Altaf(2013), Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) of Pakistan: Study of a Special Model of Governance, Pakistan Journal of History and Culture, Vol. XXXIV, No.2.
24. Ur Rehma, Faiz (2015), the Spatial Analysis of Terrorism in Pakistan, Asian Journal of Law and Economics 6(2).
25. Wahab, Shaista, Barry Youngerman (2010), A Brief History of Afghanistan, Infobase Publishing.
26. Yamin, Saira, Malik, Salma (2014), Mapping Conflict Trends in Pakistan, United States.
27. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/afghan_taliban.html

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Terrorism
  • ungoverned space
  • Social influence
  • Afghanistan
  • Pakistan

1- Asian Development Bank, Post Crisis Needs Assessment Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Federally Administered Tribal Areas, 2010.

2- Bakht, Naudir, Epistemology of Bloch and Balochistan: A History Political View, History and Culture, Vol. XXX, No1, 2008.

3- Braithwaite, Alex, Resisting Infection: How State Capacity Conditions Conflict Contagion, Journal of Peace Research, 47, 3:311–319, 2010.

4- Cohen, Aaul Bernard, Geopolitics of the Word System, Translated by: Abbas Kardan, Theran International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press, 2008.

5- Dehsyar, Hossein, Mahmoudi, Zahra, Pakistan's Attitudes to the Fight Against Terrorism (2001-2008), Foreign Relations Quarterly, Vol 2, No. 5, 2010.

6- Dorronsoro, Gilles, The Taliban’s Winning Strategy in Afghanistan, Carnegie Endowment for International peace, 2009.

7- Etaat, Javad, Dabiri, Ali Akbar, Terroeism, Place Diemenation and Global Perspectives, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University Press, 2016.

8- Feyyaz, Muhammad, Conceptualizing Terrorism Trend Patterns in Pakistan– an Empirical Perspective, Perspectives on terrorism, Vol 7, No 1, 2013.

9- Giustozzi, Antonio, Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop, The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan. London: HURST Publishers Ltd, 2007.

10- Global Peace Index, Measuring Peace, its Causes and its Economic Value, the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), 2015.

11- Global Terrorism Index 2016, Measuring and Undestanding the impact of terrorism, Institude for Economics & Peace (IEP), 2016.

12- Hussain, Syed Ejaz, Terrorism in Pakistan: Incident Patterns, Terrorists Characteristics, and the Impact of Terrorist Arrests on Terrorism, Publicly accessible Penn Dissertations, 2010.

13- Keister, Jennifer, the Illusion of Chaos Why Ungoverned Spaces Aren’t Ungoverned, and Why That Matters, Policy Analysis, CATO Institute, 2014.

14- Khatami Khosrow Shahi, Seyyed Ibrahim, Asia Book (3), Special for Afghanistan after the Taliban, Tehran, International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press, 2004.

15- Kushki, Mohammad Sadegh, Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad, Perspectives on ethnic conflicts in Pakistan; Case study: City of Karachi, Quarterly of political and international research, No. 20, 2014.

16- Malik, Iftikhar H, Religious Minorities in Pakistan, Minority Rights Group International, 2002.

17- Mehboob, S.R, Governance and Militancy in Pakistan, s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2011.

18- Mohammadi, Ali, Asia Book (5), Special for Pakistan, Extremism in Pakistan: Facts and Strategies, Tehran, International Studies & Research Abrar Moaser Tehran Press, 2010.

19- O’Loughlin, John, Frank D. W. Witmer, and Andrew M. Linke, The Afghanistan-Pakistan Wars, 2008–2009: Micro-geographies, Conflict Diffusion, and Clusters of Violence, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2010, 51, No. 4, pp. 437–471, 2010.

20- Pishgahi Fard, Zahra, Qudsi, Amir, Investigating and analyzing Pakistan's geopolitical features and its role in relations with other countries, Geographic Research, No. 63, 2007.

21- Rabas Angel, et al, Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks, Published by the RAND Corporation, 2007.

22- Rashid, Ahmed, Descent into Chaos: How the War Against Islamic Extremism is Being Lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia. London: Penguin Group, 2008.

23- Rettig, Mike, Mitigating the Threat Posed by Ungoverned Spaces Cost-effective Proposals to Enhance U.S. and Global Security, Policy Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2013.

24- Shafiei, Nozar, Mahmoudi, Zahra, Examining the Reasons of Pakistan's Importance in the War on Terrorism, Central Asian and Caucasus Quarterly, No. 87, 2012.

25- Ullah, Altaf, Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) of Pakistan: Study of a Special Model of Governance, Pakistan Journal of History and Culture, Vol. XXXIV, No.2, 2013.

26- Ur Rehman, Faiz, the Spatial Analysis of Terrorism in Pakistan, Asian Journal of Law and Economics 6 (2), 125- 165, 2015.

27- Yamin, Saira, Malik, Salma, Mapping Conflict Trends in Pakistan, United States, 2014.

28- Http://Www.Sociologyencyclopedia.Com/Fragr_Image/Media/Social

29- http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/afghan_taliban.html