معرفی منظومة «منوهر و دمالت» اثر ظهیرکرمانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دهاقان، دهاقان، ایران

2 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دهاقان، دهاقان، ایران

چکیده

نسخ خطی، میراث فرهنگی ملت‌ها و نشان‌‌دهندة تلاش مردم یک کشور در گردآوری و حفظ دستاوردهای فکری، علمی و تاریخی آن سرزمین هستند. این پژوهش به معرفی منظومة ناشناختة «منوهر و دمالت» (مجمع‌البحرین) ظهیر کرمانی اختصاص دارد. این اثر تاکنون تصحیح و چاپ نشده‌است. اصل داستان هندی بوده و سراینده در آن، یکی از افسانه‌‌های پنجگانه و مشهور هندی به‌نام «منوهر و دمالت» را به نظم درآورده‌است. تاکنون پنج نسخه از این منظومه در کتابخانه‌‌های مجلس و آستان قدس رضوی معرفی شده که در بین آن‌ها نسخة 15927 کتابخانة مجلس با نسخ دیگر تفاوت‌های فراوانی دارد. ظهیر در بخش حماسی از شاهنامۀ فردوسی و در بخش غنایی از لیلی و مجنون نظامی تأثیر پذیرفته‌است. در پایانِ برخی بخش‌ها، غزل‌هایی کوتاه در اوزان هزج، خفیف و متقارب آمده که با تخلص شاعر پایان یافته‌‌اند. در این مقاله، به روش توصیفی و با کمک منابع کتابخانه‌‌ای، ضمن پرداختن به موضوعات برجسته در متن داستان، به معرفی منظومه پرداخته‌‌ایم. معرفی منظومه «مجمع‌البحرین» علاوه‌بر نشان‌دادن جایگاه ادبی این اثر، در تبیین گسترة زبان فارسی در شبه‌قاره نیز مؤثر خواهد‌بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The introduction of the poetry of Manohar and Demalt by Zahire Kermani

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghaye Rostami 1
  • Maryam Mahmoodi 2
1 PhD Student of Persian language and literature, Islamic Azad University Dehaghan Branch.
2 Associate professor of Persian language and literature, Islamic Azad University, Dehaghan Branch.
چکیده [English]

Manuscripts are the cultural heritage of nations and represent the efforts of a country's people to collect and preserve the intellectual, scientific and historical achievements of that land. This research is devoted to the introduction of the unknown system of Manoher and Demalat (‘Majmaee-al-Bahreyn’) by Zahir Kermani. This work has not yet been corrected or printed. origin story is Indian, and The songwriter, in one of the five famous Indian legends called Mewahr and Darmat, has been ordered. So far, five versions of this poem have been introduced in the parliamentary libraries and Astan Quds Razavi, among which the 15927 edition of the library of the Majles differs from the other manuscripts. Zahir has been influenced by the epic section of Ferdowsi and the richness of Lilly and Majnoon. At the end of some sections, short sonnets in Hazzj, khafif, and moteghareb are the endings of the poet's penance. In this article, through descriptive method and with the help of library resources, while addressing outstanding issues in the text of the story, I introduced the poetry. Introducing the ‘Majmaee-al-Bahreyn’, in addition to providing the literary position of this work, will also be effective in explaining the range of Persian language in the subcontine
 
 

 
 
1. Introduction
 
Storytelling has always been a matter of interest to Iranians. "The titles and professions such as Samargoui, the narrator, the lecturer, the storyteller, the bookwriter, the storyteller in the courts and among the people, indicate the importance of this profession. In pre-Islamic Iran, stories and narratives had been prevalent. Part of it include: Rostam's News, Alexander's Messages, God's Letter, The Story of Marzban, and Yadgar Zariran (Jafarian, 1999: 56).
 
The flow of storytelling parallel to Iran, attained a special boom in the subcontinent. “The subcontinent has always been the source of many myths and stories, and the story has played an important role in the education of the people of India. One of the common themes in this subcontinent is romance stories. Except for the content of some of the stories that are influenced by Indian rituals, the profound influence of Persian literature and its rich culture in these stories and poems are observable. Indian poets, in addition to their local and traditional language, had also generally composed poems in Persian, or at least by referring to the common catalog of isolated manuscripts, writings and Persian script in the subcontinent can be found.” (Zolfaghari, 1394: 256).
    This research seeks to introduce to the lovers of Persian culture and literature one of the unknowns of Persian literature, the Assembly of Al- Bahrain by Ibrahim Zahir Kermānī. The main objective of this research is to introduce Assembly of Al-Bahrain as an example of Romance poetry and its significance on Persian literature.
   The poem of the Assembly of Al-Bahrain (Monohar and Demalt) Zahir Kermani is among those poems which have been composed under the influence of Nezami Ganjavi. However, this poetry collection by Kermani has not been published yet. Zahir Kermani is a poet who is well versed in literary techniques and metaphors. He is a poet and writer who is skillful in Arabic language too. He was proficient in sciences such as music, astronomy, chess, and geomancy; he was also knowledgeable about Quran and Hadith and used them in his works.
 What are the literary significance and prominent features of this poetry collection?  In this research, in addition to introducing this collection, its importance and its prominent features will be studied. Various versions of this poetry collection will also be examined.
 
2.Research Methodology
    This research deals with library and documentary methods comparing the versions and features of the Monohar and Medhumalat poetry collection.
 
3. Discussion
    Ibrahim Zahir Karamani (Zahir Islam) is a poet of the 12th century AD who was born in Kerman and was of Shiite religion. He is a knowledgeable and pious poet and writer whose poetry reflects his wisdom and virtue. Similar to Nezami’s style, he also observes chastity and politeness in expressing romantic themes. There are four works by this poet: Divan, Golshan-e Zohoor, Vameq and Ozra and the Assembly of Al-Bahrain.
  The Assembly of Al-Bahrain is a poem in which one of the five legends of India, Manohar and Madhumalat, has been recited. So far, five copies of it have been introduced in the libraries of Parliament libraries and Astan-e Quds Razavi. This poem is a love story about the love of Madhumalat (girl) and Manohar (boy). Outstanding features of this work include such things as "Singing Masnavi sonnets, creating epic images, depicting pure love, preaching, passionate rhythmic love letters and attention to magic."
 
The poet in different parts of his work where the main heroes have to fight with extraordinary events, rivals, barriers and strange beasts, creates superb epic images and brings the battle scenes to the audience. In martial scenes, particularly in "Sunrise Pictures" and "Epic Warrior Pictures", Kermani seems to have imitated on Ferdowsi's portrayal of sunrise and fighting scenes. As Ferdowsi portrays the sunrise and the sunset in an epic manner in Shahnameh, Kermani also tries to apply the same technique in his poetry.
   The poet in romantic and love scenes in his work, depicts a platonic and pure love. A non-physical love that pursues perfectionism. "In perfectionism, there is no physical attraction and a pure love is developed" (Sattari, 1366: 398). Demalt emphasizes the "preservation of chastity" before marriage, and this is a clear sign of pure love in the story. Beloved forbids the lover of impure physical love. In the first visit, where Monohar falls in loves with Demalut, Demalut asks him to observe chastity before marriage. This affection with Love is a reminder of pure love in the poetry of Lilly and Majnun. Pure love and excitement are a kind of Platonic love which will bring perfection to mankind.
 
In addition to the story of Manohar and Demalt, heroes use the magic to change their nature and identity several times to achieve their goals. "In the sources, magic has three meanings: 1-Cults and fantasies without truth, like hocus pocus. 2- Attracting the devils in certain ways and getting help from them. 3. Change the nature and shape of individuals and creatures with special means » (Rastegar Fasa'i, 2004: 47).
   In this story, magic is used to change the nature. When Demalt's mother sees her daughter next to Menahor, she gets very angry with her daughter’s behavior, she reads a magical verse to water and by splashing it to Demalt, transforms her into a parrot.
 Turning Demalt to Parrot in this story has the color of Indian tales. The presence of animals in Indian stories is common. The frequency of the presence of some of these animals in Indian stories is significantly more than other animals, among which are parrots. Parrot is a native Indian bird which is frequently found in many Indian stories.
 
4-Conclusion
    The love poetry of Manohar and Demalt, which narrates the love between the two devotees, has a happy ending. The original is Indian and the poem is in the form of Masnavi. The poet has composed this poem on different rhymes and that is why he has called it the "Assembly of sees".
The poet imitated the creation of the epic images of Ferdowsi. In courtly love parts of the poem, Kermani seems to be paying attention to the story of Lilly and Majnun (by Nezami) in matters such as pure love, advice from the father of Manohar and the letters.
   This poetry collection has five versions. The 15927 edition of the Library of the Parliament varies greatly with four other versions. In the introduction to this edition, along with short poems by Kermani, there are also poems about praying God, in praise of Imam Ali, the appearance of Hazrat Hojjat and Miraj, which cannot be found in any of the other manuscripts.
   The presence of animals in the story, in particular the colorful parrot of Indian stories, tells the story. Animals are the heroes of the stories, sometimes the king, sometimes the minister and ordinary people. Humans and animals do not differ in the function of storytelling roles, and thus simply they can transform into each other.
    
 References
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Manuscripts
  • Manoher and Demalat
  • Zahire Kermani
  • Lyrical poetry

1- آقاحسینی، حسین؛ پوده، آرزو، بررسی تحلیلی عشق عذری در لیلی و مجنون مکتبی شیرازی، مجلة شعر پژوهی، سال 8، شمارة 2، صص 1-25، دانشگاه شیراز: تابستان1395.

2- بساک، حسن، عصایی، فاطمه بیگم، مقایسۀ وامق و عذرا ظهیرکرمانی با ازهر و مزهر نزاری قهستانی، فصلنامۀ پژوهش‌های ادبی و بلاغی، شمارة 2، دورۀ 5، صص 53-45، دانشگاه پیام‌نور: بهار 1396.

3-  پیری، موسی؛ وحیدیان کامیار، تقی، بررسی انجام در داستان‌های خسرو و شیرین، گل و نوروز و جمشید و خورشید، پژوهشنامة ادب غنایی، سال 10، شمارۀ 19، صص 30-9، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان: پاییز و زمستان 1391.

4- جعفریان، رسول، قصه‌خوانان در تاریخ اسلام و ایران، تهران: آگه، 1378.

5- درایتی، مصطفی، فهرست‌وارۀ دست‌نوشته‌های ایران (دنا)، تهران: کتابخانۀ مجلس، 1390.

6- ذوالفقاری، حسن، یکصد منظومة عاشقانة ادب فارسی، تهران: چرخ و چشمه، 1394.

7- رستگار‌فسایی، منصور، پیکرگردانی در اساطیر، تهران: پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی، 1383.

8- ستاری، جلال، حالات عشق مجنون، تهران: توس، 1366.

9- صائمی، نرگس، فرم‌شناسی وامق و عذرا ظهیرکرمانی، اهواز: دانشگاه پیام نور، 1389.

10- ظهیرکرمانی، ابراهیم، منوهر و مدهومالت، ش 13529، تهران: کتابخانۀ مجلس، 1172

11- ــــــــــــــــــ ، منوهر و مدهومالت، ش 15927، تهران: کتابخانۀ مجلس، 1252.

12- ــــــــــــــــــ ، منوهر و مدهومالت، ش 1447، تهران: کتابخانۀ مجلس، 1282.

13- ــــــــــــــــــ ، منوهر و مدهومالت، ش 4946، مشهد: کتابخانۀ رضوی، 1308.

14- ــــــــــــــــــ ، منوهر و مدهومالت، ش 4945، مشهد: کتابخانۀ رضوی، 1319 .

15- ــــــــــــــــــ ، وامق و عذرا، تصحیح اسداله شهریاری، مشهد: جادوان خرد، 1388.

16- عباسی، محمود؛ ملاالهی، معصومه، موسیقی بیرونی اشعار نظیری نیشابوری، فصلنامۀ مطالعات شبه‌قاره، سال 3، شمارۀ 9، صص 129-105، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان: زمستان 1390.

17- عرفانی، عبدالحمید، داستان‌های عشقی پاکستان، تهران: ابن‌سینا، 1340.

18- فردوسی، ابوالقاسم، شاهنامه، چاپ مسکو، به کوشش سعید حمیدیان، تهران: نشر داد، 1374.

19- نظامی گنجوی، الیاس‌بن‌یوسف، لیلی و مجنون، به کوشش سعید حمیدیان، تهران: قطره، 1376.