تغییرات ساختاری کلمات عربی در اثر ورود به شبه‌قاره هند

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 فارغ‌التحصیل کارشناسی‌ارشد زبان و ادبیات عربی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

سابقۀ ارتباط هندیان با اعراب و آشنایی آن‌ها با فرهنگ و زبان یکدیگر، به عهد سومریان بازمی‌گردد. در زبان هندی واژه‌هایی وجود دارد که از زبان‌های دیگر وارد این زبان شده‌است. از‌منظر تاریخ و مبدأ، بعد از گرویدن مردم هند به اسلام، زبان عربی وارد شبه‌قاره شد. پس‌از اسلام، تعاملات علمی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی بین هندیان مسلمان و اعراب شدت یافت. پیامد تعاملات، تأثیر متقابل دو زبان بر یکدیگر بود که در وام‌گیری واژه‌ها و اخذ عناصر زبانی تجلی یافت. مقالۀ حاضر، با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، به تحولات ساختاری برخی کلمات عربی در زبان‌های هندی پرداخته‌است. یافته‌های تحقیق نشان می‌دهد، تغییرات ساختاری و تألیفی در واژگان دخیل عربی، ناشی از رویکرد تنسیقی و نتیجۀ تعامل و هماهنگی با نظام آوایی زبان هندی بوده که به آن‌ها مقبولیت و انسجام بخشیده‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Structural changes in Arabic words due to entry into the Indian subcontinent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Rezaei 1
  • Marziye Ghasemi 2
1 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Master of of Arabic Language and Literature Dept, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

    The history of Indian communication with the Arabs and their familiarity with the culture of each other is back to the Ottoman Empire. In Hindi there are words that come from other languages in this language. From the historical point of view, after the Indian people came to Islam, the Arabic language entered the subcontinent. After Islam, the scientific, cultural and economic interactions between the Muslim and the Hindi became more intense. The results of interactions were the mutual interplay of two-way speeches that were manifested in borrowing words and obtaining linguistic elements. The present article, through a descriptive-analytical method, transforms the structural transformations of some Arabic words In Hindi. The research findings show that structural and authoritative changes in Arabic-related vocabulary are due to a tensile approach and the result of interaction and harmony with the dialectical system of the Indian language, which has made them acceptable and coherent.
 
1-     Introduction
System language is a systematic system of laryngoscopic sounds and sequences of these sounds used to link people of a community and which gives almost complete lists of objects and events and experiences (Batteni, 1373: 14-15) In other words, the language is a regular contractual system of verbal or written voices or signs used by people belonging to a particular social or cultural group for the presentation and understanding of communications and thoughts, and this set of contractual signs along a dimension (time) To transmit a specific message is used. Interrelationship between humans makes the dialect of a language (whether direct or indirect) communicate with the dialects of the languages of its neighboring tribes or with the languages of the tribes with dominant culture. The contact and the relationship between the relatives of each other, to any degree and degree, is sufficient to establish interrelationship between them, and we know that such influences are not generally a strain, but the probability of influencing the language of the language, which is the center of gravity of civilization, is in languages Naturally, its surroundings are more than likely to affect them. The linguistic effect is seen in semantic, syntactic, spatial and phonological terms. One of these influential languages is Arabic, which is one of the sub-branches of the Sami language and coextensive with Hebrew and Aramaic languages. Arabic is a derivative language, which means that Arabic speakers use verbal, spatial, inspirational, figurative, and ... forms, and make words by pouring the root of the word into these templates called Bobs. This language affects Hindi, Urdu and Tamil languages in its first link with the Subcontinent, centuries before Islam entered the subcontinent.
 
2-     Research methodology
In this research, an analytical-descriptive method is used to express and present the subject. First, by referring to authoritative sources and references, the impact of Arabic language on Indian languages is examined and then, by specifying how this impact is influenced by the impact of this, is expressed.
 
3-     Discussion
The tremendous influence of Arabic on Indian language is not limited to lexical borrowing, but also covers the mere derivation (or termination). In this case, the enormous influence of the Arabic language on the Hindi language is that the culture of that day on the subcontinent had an identity that was trying to make itself more similar to the Muslim world, especially the Arabs of that era. Undoubtedly, this fact has had a great influence on the Hindi language. Given that each word has a structure and form that, due to the entry of another language, according to the principles and rules of that language, changes and changes, and the main factor of this change in the terms in many different languages and changes in the rules and principles Words  (Morris,2000:26)   and changes occur not only in words but also in phrases derived from other languages or in local dialects, and the occurrence of these changes is the result of the historical transformations of words, the linguistic changes occurring in the lexical system Data has been taken over a different age
The root cause of these lexical changes is the principles and rules that come from each language, and along with these causes, there are innumerable internal and external factors that affect the creation of these changes. Linguists have divided the internal factors into three groups: mechanical, emotional, and structure. The physical factors associated with body physiology are the functions of the organs of the body in the pronunciation of the letters, and the sensory factors are dependent on the power of understanding these changes, but the factors of the lexical structure are related to the rules of the construction of terms and the combination of phrases. But the external or external factors of these changes are in fact due to the phenomenon of cultural exchange and the social and geographical environment: words based on geographical points and people of those regions have different meanings and meanings, for example, the word Qibla in Arabic in the sense Kaaba is the altar of the mosque, and this word is in Hindi in the meaning of Your Excellency, Honorable and Responsible.
 A collection of different cultures requires the creation of a pivotal language of thought, whose origin is rooted in a culture that influences the culture of that period of Arabic-Islamic culture. For example, the phrase "Words of Wisdom" is used in Hindi and Urdu for greetings. This term is not used in Arabic in this sense, but this additional combination is used only in Hindi and Urdu, which is due to the effects of Arabic-Islamic culture on Indian culture.
Linguists have divided lexical variations into several types. Sometimes these changes occur in the cost of the letters and their pronouns, which are referred to as changes in vocal, and sometimes these changes occur in the rules and structural principles of the word that change these changes. They are called syntactic, and sometimes these changes lead to the widening of the semantic domain of the words that are referred to as altered and conceptual changes of the word  (Sapir,1970:192)
 
4-     Conclusion
Given that Arabic and Hindi are not considered to be a linguistic family, they do not have a common background, but the background to these two languages comes back much before the arrival of Islam into the subcontinent, and it is said that India with the Arabs During the era of the Sumerians, they had a business relationship. As a result of these commercial interactions and businessmen movement, both areas became more familiar with culture and religion, and in later periods, due to the arrival of Islam in the subcontinent, the relationship between the two languages Already, due to the Arab domination of the subcontinent, not only the relationship between the two languages persisted, but more intensive. The consequence of this relationship is the impact of these two languages on each other, which made the two languages borrow elements from one another, and this linguistic lending is often in the field of lexical language, and the Hindi language, in its long association with Arabic, many vocabularies Borrowed from the Arabic language, and the point to be considered is that the words often used in the same way as used in Arabic were also used in the Hindi language, but some of the Arabic vocabulary was also in effect Geographical factors and cultural links have changed, and sometimes these changes were purely audio and had no effect on their writing, and sometimes they Changes were spontaneous and syntactic, and sometimes changes occurred in the meaning of the word. Due to the extensive relationship between these two languages, the number of Arabic words in Hindi has grown so much so that more than 40,000 Arabic words have become prevalent in Hindi, and these occasions are sometimes directly derived from Arabic and sometimes intermingled with Persian language. Subcontinent.
 
References
1-     Batteni, Mohammad Reza; Language and Thought, Contemporary Culture, Tehran. 1394.
2-     Morris.Swedesh. The Origin and Diversi fication of language.London.2000. 
3-     Sapir.E. Language Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1970
4-     Ahmad.Aziz.Studies in islsmic culture in the indian Inviroment .  clarendon press, oxford 1964.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Arabic language
  • Hindi language
  • subcontinent
  • Lexical interference

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7- Ahmad.Aziz.Studies in islsmic culture in the Indian Inviroment. Clarendon press, oxford 1964.

8- Desai, Z. - Din. Centres of Islamic Learning in India.New Delhi: Publications Division, and Broadcasting, Govt. of India.1978

9- Hockett.C.F.Modern linguistics – A course. New Delhi. Oxford and IEH Press. 1958

10- Khan, S.H. Arabic Language Teaching in India: Its Place and Scope in the Present Indian Higher Education. 2013.

11- Kiparsky, p. Lexical Morphology and Phonology. Seoul: Hanshin. 1982.

12- Lengacker. Ronald.W. Pundsmentals of linguistics. New York.1972.

13- Morris.Swedesh. the Origin and Diversi fication of language.London.2000.

14- Qutbuddin, Tahera. Arabic in India: A survey and classification of its uses, compared with Persian. Journal o the American Oriental Society 2007.

15- Rahman, T. (2000)"The Teaching of Arabic to the Muslims of South Asia," Islamic Studies

16- Richardson.John.T.E.Contemporary semanticTheories.Journal of  litrary semartics.The Hoagae1973.  

17- Sapir.E. Language Harcourt, Brace and World Inc, 1970.

18- Siddiqui, S. A. Contributions of Indian Muslims to Islamic Studies The Muslim World League Journal 30 .2002.

19- Versteegh K.Encyclopedia of Arabic Language an Linguistics, ed. Leiden: Brill 2006.