جستاری در معماری مسجد جامع گلبرگه، شاهکار هنر ایرانی در شبه‌‌قاره هند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه مرمت دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه بین‌‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)

چکیده

مسجد جامع گلبرگه در شهر گلبرگه، پایتخت سلاطین بهمنی در ناحیۀ دکن هند به سال 769 هجری به‌‌دست «معمار رفیع قزوینی» ساخته شد. چگونه یک معمار ایرانی قرن هشتم در آن ناحیۀ دوردست حضور پیدا کرده و اثری شگرف خلق کرده‌‌است که هنوز پابرجاست؟ ویژگی‌‌های شاخص معماری و فنی این مسجد و علت پایداری آن با وجود ویرانی سایر بناهای شهر، پرسش‌‌هایی در مواجهه با این بنا پیش کشیده و پاسخ روشنی می‌‌طلبد. فرضیۀ تحقیق، پیدایش شیوۀ معماری ایرانی در آن ناحیه را نفوذ موج فرهنگی و هنری با حضور هنرمندانی مثل آن معمار در آن نقطه از جهان می‌‌داند؛ فرایندی که سبک ایرانی- دکنی را به نمایش گذاشته که متفاوت از معماری سبک مغولی هند است. روش تحقیق، تحلیلی- توصیفی است. نتایج پژوهش کاربرد اصول نیارش معماری ایرانی، از‌‌جمله: اصل تقابل نیرو، استفادۀ وسیع از سازه‌‌های طاقی کلمبو، طاق آهنگ، گنبد و... را در ساخت این بنا نشان داده و ریشۀ ترکیب عناصر معماری هندی ازجمله شیوۀ «پنچایاتانا» در این بنا را روشن می‌‌سازد. همچنین وجوه معماری مسجد جامع گلبرگه را همراه با طرح‌‌ها و تصاویر مربوط، بررسی می‌‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A survey on the Gulbarga Jame Mosque, the masterpiece of the Iranian art in the Indian subcontinent

نویسنده [English]

  • Javad Shekari Niri
Associate Professor of Restoration and Preservation of monuments Dept. University of Imam Khomeini International University
چکیده [English]

    The Gulbarga Mosque in the city of Gulbarga, the capital of the Bahamanid Sultans in the Deccan area of ​​India, was constructed in the year 769 AH by the architect Rafi Qazvini. How did an Iranian architect of the eighth century appear in the distant region and created a magnificent work that is still steady? The Features of the architectural and technical index of this mosque and the reason for its sustainability, despite the destruction of other buildings in the city, have raised questions in facing this building and require a clear answer. The hypothesis of the Genesis research suggests that the Iranian architecture in that area is influenced by cultural and artistic waves with the presence of artists such as the architect at that point in the world; a process exhibited by the Iranian-Deccan style, different from the Indian Mongolian style architecture. The research method is analytical-descriptive. The results of the research, the application of the principles of Persian architecture extensive use of the Iranian Columbus vault and domes, and the root of the combination of elements of Indian architecture, including the" Panchayatana" in This makes the building clear.
1. Introduction
    The Gulbarga Mosque was built by the Iranian architect Qazvin in the time of the belfries, and despite the Indian features in terms of the architecture and structure, especially in the types of roofs and views and arches and arch, the original and rooted Iranian architecture to Which continues to exist seven hundred years after the date of its construction (Blair, 1381, 181). Architectural and artistic studies in Deccan reveal a wide range of influences on Iranian architecture in this land, which is largely independent of the art school and architecture of the Mongolian style of the North in the north, Agra. At the time of the Gulbarga kings, along with merchants and scientists, a large group of industrialists and architects also entered Deccan. These architects began to build buildings in the same style and style that they used to be in Iran, as if these buildings, both in design and in construction, were brought to Iran from one place to another (Masoumi, 2010, 195) . The research hypothesis considers the root of Islamic architecture of the Indian subcontinent in the development and domination of Iranian cultural art, especially in the field of architecture and structure, in combination with Indian elements. The Sultans used a certain style for their art from simultaneous Iranian art (Hallid, Gotts, 2005, 71). Due to the support of Bahman Shah from literati, scholars and artists, many of them migrated from Iran to Deccan and cultivated the culture and civilization of Iran in that land (Seyyed Hosseinzadeh, 2012, 5284). This study analyzes the physical space of this work is rooted in its architectural and structural design that provides the stability of the Gulbarga Mosque to the present. In addition to Iranian architecture, due to the use of some elements and principles of local architecture, the style of the building can be considered "Iranian-Deccan". Some have compared the Gulbarga Mosque with the Cordoba Mosque and have even considered it a mimic (Patal, 2016, 11-20). It should be noted that neither the shape of the arches nor the way of implementation is the smallest in Cordoba's comprehensive coverage of the Gulbarga mosque. Contrary to such statements, it should be said that the most prominent example of the arch vault is comparable to the Mosque of Gulbarga, the mosque of Isfahan.
2. Research methodology

Procedure of research in this paper is fundamental and research method is descriptive-analytical. Due to the critique of the theories on the architecture of the mosque of Gulbarga, we tried to compare and adapt a new horizon to the Islamic Architects Opens up, By the analyzing, comparing and deducing from the original Iranian historical and artistic evidence, it will try to obtain the expected and necessary results regarding the authenticity of the Iranian architecture. Multiple documentary and library studies, studying satellite imagery and new and old images of the extensive study of existing and published information on the World Wide Web, with the adaptation of the existing body based on the experiences and examples of Iranian architecture, perform the necessary documentation and By describing and analyzing the data, it will reveal the origin of the ideas and the design of the building, with the necessary conclusions, with a more complete introduction of it.
3. Discussion
Most of the mosques that were built in the era of the Mughal Sultans, of India and before that,  especially before them in northern India, have a central or four-Ivan's yard, and in some Cases a dome-house. The Gulbarga Mosque has a different map and has an arched roof covering all around it, which seems to be designed for rainy weather (Bunce, 2008, 56). The Gulbarga Mosque is considered to be less known among the Iranian and non-Iranian architectural community. Unfortunately, it has to be said that a document other than the inscription of this building has not yet been found in its architect's or other works. Even the researchers wrote the name of the architect in various ways, such as "Rafi" (Blair, Bloom, 1381, 180), or "Refie" (Soruri, Mohammad Hosseini, 1394). The few mosques in India's sub-continent are comparable to the Gulbarga mosque in terms of their introverted design. A mosque called the" Shast Gumbaz", Persian word meaning Sixty Dome, built in 1459 by Khan Jahan, the governor of the Sundarbans. It is located in Bagerhat district in southern Bangladesh, with a width of 49 × 45 × 49 (Tariq &, 2013, 46). The city of Gulbarga was the capital of Bahmanian for 75 years. Most Bahmanian buildings have been built by Iranian architects in the traditional style of architecture in Iran. The Gulbarga Mosque was built inside of Gulbarga Fort. Most of the sources mention the number of central vaults of the building, Columbus, as 63. While the number of Colombo vaults in the Gulbarga roof is 75, with 27 Barrel Vaults and 5 domes of the ceiling of the building. The Gulbarga Mosque has a unique map and the mosque's design is not replicated in other places in Deccan (Yazdani, 1995, 22). From engineering techniques in the Gulbarga Mosque, the skilled use of the architect is based on the principle of the opposition of force to stand (Fig. 3). The most prominent example of the application of the principle of power opposition, Is the structures of the Palace of Ardeshir in Firoozabad, belonging to the early Sassanid period of more than 1,700 years (Fig. 5). Usually in the architecture of the Iranian mosques, only one dome on the side of the mosque facing the Qibla The research revealed that the arrangement of the five domes of the building is related to the conventional attitude and Hindu worldview. This combination Design ancient Hindu temples "Panchayatana» called (Ritze, 1998, 56); Which means "five styles" in Sanskrit.
4- Conclusion
Bahmanian era is when Iranian scholars, architects, artists and writers emigrated to the Deccan, creating Iranian culture and civilization and Iranian architecture and art in this land. Buildings built in Bahmanian era are often made by Iranian architects in the traditional architecture of Iran and a combination of local traditions, and Persian inscriptions with Nastaliq and Solth epigraphs, represent and decorate these constructions. Architectural style of the Deccan era can be called Iranian-Deccan architecture. The tendency of the kings of Bahmani to the Shia religion played a key role in promoting Iranian culture in this area. The Gulbarga Mosque is one of the best examples of Persian architecture in the land of Deccan. In general, these events successfully introduced and developed the Iranian construction and architecture techniques in Deccan. The building of the mosque of Gulbarga has recorded the name of the architect Rafi Qazvini in his inscription. With full control over his science, he used Iranian arches and domes, and he used the principle of force interaction widely in the construction of the building to balance the building, which is one of the main reasons for sustainability until today. The original, one of the most common principles in Iranian architecture before Islam, was also used at the Firuzabad Palace. Despite the preponderance of Iranian architecture in this mosque, layers of elements and principles of Indian architecture are also evident on the basis of the principles of "Vasto Shastra" and Mandala in this building. The construction of five domes, on the roof of the mosque, describes the principles governing the design of the Hindu architecture called Panchayatana. A combination that was used in many of the Islamic monuments of India, including the Taj Mahal, the tomb of Hoshang Shah, and so on. The correction of a series of commonly used theory of flaws in this regard is one of the other achievements of the present research. The research revealed that the design of a mosque with a Columbus vault is a Persian design. It was also found that the Gulbarga Mosque, despite the special innovations in its architectural design, was not the only mosque throughout the roof of the Islamic world or the subcontinent. The feature of the sky line, the lack of long, long headed arches, and the non-standard mode in the body of the body, has given it an irrevocable shape.
 
5- References
 
1- Abu'l-Qasemi, Latif,  "Normalizing of the Iran's Islamic Architecture ", Iran's Architecture in Islamic Period, by Mohammad Yousef Kiani, pp. 361-359, Tehran, University Jihad, 1982.
Aginhotri, V. 2-k. Indian History, Allied Publishers,26 Edition, New Delhi, India, 2010                                                                                                         
3- Ahmad, A, Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh, UNESCO, Dacha, Bangladesh, 2008.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4- Alfieri, Bianca Maria, Islamic Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. London: Laurence King Publishing. PP. 147, 148, 2000                                                                                                                                                                                     24-Ara, Matsuo,5-_________Jama Masjid, The Research and Information Center for Asian Studies, University of Tokyo, http://www.ioc.u- tokyo.ac.jp,2001,accsses,2014                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6- Aqeel, Moinaddin, Iranian Cultural Relations with the Bahmanian dynasty of India Translation and Summary: Ali Mohammad –e Tarafdari, Historical Awareness Foundation, http://pishine.ir/archives/15443/ Creation 2013, Access: 2000                                                     7 - Aqeel, Moinaddin, Iran, and Bahmanian government in Deccan, translation: Shahid Chowhdari, Ali Mohammad e- Tarafdari, Journal of the Growth of Education in History, Fourteenth Issue 48, Pages 28-37, 2012                                                                                        8- Aziz Ahmad, The History of Islamic Thought in India, translation:  Nagy Lotfi and Mohammad Ja'far Yahaqi , Tehran: Kayhan Publishing House, in collaboration with the Scientific and Cultural Company, 2014.           
9- Blair, Sheila, Bloom, Jonathan, Islamic Art and Architecture, Translated by Ardeshir Eshraghi, Tehran, Soroush, 2002.
Burton, John, Indian Islamic Architecture: Forms and Typologies, Sites and Monuments, Publisher: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2008                                                                                                    10- Bunce, Fredrick W, The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent: Their Development and Iconography, Edition: First edition, Published by D.K. Print world (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India. 2008                                                                                              
11- Chandler, David, Land and People of Cambodia, Translation by Mehdi Ghobraee, Tehran, Scientific-Cultural Publishing Company, 1988
12-Francisco, Ortega Andrade, La construcción Sasánida , Contenido:, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran, Canaria ,  http://editorial.cda.ulpgc.es, 2008, Access 2013
13-  Godard, André, Godard, Idias, Siro, Maxim, Iranian Remnants, Translated by: Abolhassan Sarv gadd Moghaddam, 3rd Vol, Mashhad, Islamic Research Foundation, Astan -e Quds Razavi, 1988                                                                                                                      14- Halayed Madeleine, Gutz Herman,  Indian and Iranian Indian and Islamic Art, translated by Yaghoub Azhand, Second Edition, Tehran, Mola Publication, 2003.                    15- Hillen Brand, Robert, Islamic Architecture, Translation by Iraj Etesam, Publisher: Urban Processes and Planning, Tehran, 1998
16-Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning, 78, 104, 290, 410, 488. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994.                                                                                                                 17 - Hoag, John D. Islamic Architecture. Milan: Electa Editrice. 150, 1975 29-Jain, Jinisha, Structure as a document, Structural Analysis of Historic Construction, D, Ayala & Fodde, (eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London,289,2011                                                                                                                                                                 18-Huda, Seyed Hosseinzadeh, Bahman Shah, Major Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol. 13 , Publisher: The Great Islamic Encyclopedia Center, Tehran, pp. 5284-5285, 2004                     19- Jafarian, Rasoul, Safavid in the field of Culture and Politics, Vol. 1, Qom,
Research Institute of  Hooze and University, 2010                                                                 20- Kashani, Ghias al-din Jamshid, Resaleh –ye Taqh va Azaj, translation and description: Seyyed Alireza jszbi, Tehran, Soroush 1989                                                                               21- Kumar Singh, Qazvin and the like capitals at Agra and Delhi. Proceedings of the International Conference of Qazvin in the Safavid Age,  by the efforts of Bagher Ali Adelfar, Qazvin, Imam Khomeini International University Press, PP. 607-623,  2004                             22- Masoumi, Mohsen, Effect of Iranian Architecture In the buildings of Bahmanian era in south of India (748-934), beautiful arts: Campus of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Volume 21, Number 21, Tehran, pp. 97-104, 2005.                                                                    23- Masumi , Mohsen, The Culture of Iranian-Islamic Civilization in Deccan during the Bahmanid era, Scientific-Cultural Press, Tehran, 2010                                                          24- Masoumi, Gholamreza, Encyclopedia of World Myths and Rites: Volume 3, Tehran, Sura Mehr, 2005
Manish, Jain, Principal Architect at Front Desk Architects , Published on Nov 28, 2011 access, 2016                                                                                                                                                            25- Michell, George, : Exploring Deccan Architecture with George Michell,2015, https://www.metmuseum.org, Access, 2018                                                                                                                      26- Mondini, Sara. " Strategy and Ambiguities in the Decorative Programs of the Ahmad Shah Ι Bahmani   Mausoleum ,  ,Editor: Stefano, Pellò, Borders Itineraries on the Edges of Iran . Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Italia, PP. 155-180, 2016
27- patal, nagesh , A study on bahamani sultans monuments, p.g. department in tourism, India, 2016 28-Reitz, Falk, Pancayatana-Komplexe in Nordindien: Entstehung, Entwicklung und regionale Besonderheiten einer indischen Architektur form, PhD Thesis (in German), Awarded by Freie Universität Berlin,1997 p.38
29-Rezaei, Abedin, Deccan's Dynasties, Zamaneh Magazine, pp. 30-32, Tehran, New Year, July 101, 2011                                                                                                                           30-  Samyi, Majid, Bahmanid, The  Great Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol. 13, Publisher: The Great Islamic Encyclopedia Center, Tehran, pp. 52291-5292, 2004
31- Soruri, Hamid Reza, Mohammad Hosseini, Ehsan, Gulbarga Mosque, An Introduction to Persian Art and Culture in India, http://sinapress.ir/news/31534 Report 6 March 1394 Access 1 395
32-Staff, sun, The Beauty of Bengali Temples - Part 1   http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/09-06/features428.htm, ,Staff .sun 2005, Access 2017                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       33- Shokoohy, Mehrdad,Muslim Architecture of South India: The Sultanate of Ma'bar and the Traditions of Maritime Settlers on the Malabar and Coromandel Coasts (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa), Publisher, Routledge Curzon . London, 2013
34-Tariq, S.H, Jinia, M.A, The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques, Global Journal Al-Thaqafah, (GJAT)VOL,3, ISSUE 1, 2013       35 - Volwahsen, Andreas , Henri Stierlin( editors). Islamic india of Architecture of the World. Vol. 8,  Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag,P. 36,1990. 
36- Yari, Siavash, Kanariwand, Maryam, The role of the Iranian bureaucrats in promoting Shiism in Deccan during the Bahmani period ( case study: Mir Fazl – Allah Injoy and Mahmud Gavan ) (Case study Mir-Falladollah Injoui And Mahmoud Gavan), Quarterly Journal of Subcontinent StudiesUniversity of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan.Volume 7, Issue 23,PP. 117-135, 2016         
 
 37- Yazdani, Ghulam, Bidar, Its History and Monuments, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe,Delhi, 1995                                                                                                                                                 38- Yazdani, G. “The Great Mosque of Gulbarga,” Islamic Culture 2, pp. 14-21, India, 1928                                                                                                   
39-_______ , Mihrab of the jama Masjid at Gulbarga, http://mapio.net/pic/p-19834460/,2015, Access,2017                                                                                                                                                                                40-________ Gulbarga, http://indiarailinfo.com/departures/gulbarga-gr/146 , Acsses,2016                                                                                                        41-________World Heritage Site". The-world-heritage-sites.com. 1986-11-28. Retrieved 2012-http://indiathatwas.com/?p=287,  Narayana, Hari. (2011), The Jumma Masjidâ “Gulbarga Fort Access 2017                                                                                             
42-________ https://www.beautifulmosque.com/Jama-Mosque-in-Gulbarga-India, Access 2016                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             43-________ Mapio.net, s.r.o. Juma Masjid-Gulbarga, http://mapio.net/pic/p-19834460/, Access 2016                                                                                                               
44-________ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IN-KA.svg, Access 2018                                                     45-________https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/Karnataka, Access 2018

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Jami' Masjid of Gulbarga
  • Rafie -e Qazvini
  • Deccan Indo - Iranian
  • Architecture Style
  • Columbo vault
  • Indian Panchayatana Style

1- ابوالقاسمی، لطیف، هنجارشکل‌‌یابی معماری اسلامی ایران در ﻣﻌﻤـﺎری اﯾـﺮان در دوران اسلامی، به کوشش محمد‌‌یوسف کیانی، صص 361-359، تهران: جهاد دانشگاهی، 1366.

2- بلر، شیلا، بلوم، جاناتان، هنر و معماری اسلامی، ترجمۀ اردشیر اشراقی، تهران: سروش، 1381

3- بزرگمهری، زهره، گنبد در معماری ایران، اثر، 1370، شمارۀ 20، صص 155-153، انتشارات پژوهشگاه سازمان میراث فرهنگی، زمستان 1370

4- جعفریان، رسول، صفویه در عرصۀ دین فرهنگ و سیاست، جلد 1، قم: پژوهشگاه حوزه و دانشگاه، 1389.

5- چندلر، دیوید، سرزمین و مردم کامبوج، ترجمۀ مهدی غبرائی، تهران: انتشارات علمی فرهنگی، 1367.

6- رضایی، عابدین، خاندان‌‌های حکومتی دکن، مجلۀ زمانه، شمارۀ 101، دورۀ جدید، صص 32-30، پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشۀ اسلامی، تهران: تیر 1390.

7- سروری، حمیدرضا؛ محمدحسینی، احسان، مسجد جامع گلبرگه، نمایی از فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی در هندوستان (http://sinapress.ir/news/31534 گزارش 6 اسفند 1394 دسترسی 1395).

8- سمیعی، مجید؛ بهمنیان؛ دانشنامۀ بزرگ اسلامی، جلد 13، تهران: مرکز دایرةالمعارف بزرگ اسلامی، 1383.

9- سیدحسین‌‌زاده، هدی، بهمن‌‌شاه؛ دانشنامۀ بزرگ اسلامی، جلد 13، تهران: مرکز دائرة‌‌المعارف بزرگ اسلامی، 1383.

10- شهریار نقوی، سید حیدر، استمرار فرهنگ و هنر ساسانیان در شبه‌قاره هند و پاکستان، هنر و مردم، 1355، شمارۀ 165 و 166، صص 119-109، وزارت فرهنگ و هنر (سابق): تیر و مرداد 1355.

11- احمد، عزیز، تاریخ تفکر اسلامی در هند، ترجمۀ نقی لطفی و محمدجعفر یاحقی، تهران: انتشارات کیهان، با همکاری شرکت انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی، ۱۳۹۴.

12- عقیل، معین‌‌الدین، ایران و حکومت بهمنیان در دکن، ترجمۀ شاهد چوهدری، علی‌‌محمد طرفداری، مجلۀ رشد آموزش تاریخ، دورۀ 14، شمارۀ 48، صص 37-28، 1391.

13- ــــــــــــــ ، مناسبات فرهنگی ایران با سلسلۀ بهمنیان هند، ترجمه و تلخیص: علی‌‌محمد طرفداری، پایگاه عبرت‌‌پژوهی تاریخی، (http://pishine.ir/archives/15443، ایجاد 2013، دسترسی 1397).

14- کاشانی، غیاث‌‌الدین جمشید، رسالۀ طاق و ازج، ترجمه و تحشیۀ سید علیرضا جذبی، تهران: سروش، 1366.

15- کومار سینگ، آب‌‌های، قزوین و پایتخت‌های مشابه در آگرا و دهلی، مجموعه مقالات همایش بین‌‌المللی قزوین عصر صفوی، به کوشش باقرعلی عادل‌‌فر، صص 623-607، قزوین: انتشارات دانشگاه بین‌‌المللی امام‌خمینی، 1391.

16- گدار، آندره؛ گدار، یدا؛ سیرو، ماکسیم، آثار ایران، ترجمۀ ابوالحسن سروقد مقدّم، ج 3، مشهد: بنیاد پژوهش‌‌های اسلامی آستان قدس رضوی، 1367.

17- معصومی‎، غلامرضا، دایرة‌‌المعارف اساطیر و آیین‌‌های باستانی جهان، جلد سوم، تهران: سورۀ مهر، 1393.

18- معصومی، محسن، تأثیر معماری ایرانی در بناهای دورۀ بهمنیان در جنوب هند (748-934)، هنرهای زیبا: پردیس هنرهای زیبای دانشگاه تهران، دورۀ 21، شمارۀ 21، تهران: صص 97-104، 1384.

19- ــــــــــــــ ، فرهنگ تمدن ایرانیاسلامی دکن در دورۀ بهمنیان، تهران: انتشارات علمی فرهنگی، 1389.

20- هالاید، مادلین؛ گوتس، هرمان، هنر هند و ایرانی هند و اسلامی، ترجمۀ یعقوب آژند، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات مولی، 1384.

21- هیلن براند، رابرت، معماری اسلامی، ترجمۀ ایرج اعتصام، تهران:ناشر:شرکت پردازش و برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری، 1377.

22- یاری، سیاوش؛ کناری‌‌وند، مریم، نقش دیوانسالاران ایرانی در گسترش تشیّع در دکن عصر بهمن‌‌ها (مطالعۀ موردی: میرفضل‌‌الله اینجوی و محمود گاوان)، فصلنامۀ مطالعات شبه‌‌قاره، دورۀ 7، شمارۀ 23، صص 135-117، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان: 1394.

23- Agnihotri, V. k. Indian History, Allied Publishers,26 Edition, New Delhi, India, 2010

24- Ahmad, A, Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh, UNESCO, Dacha, Bangladesh, 2008.

25- Alfieri, Bianca Maria, Islamic Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. London: Laurence King Publishing. PP. 147, 148, 2000

26- Ara, Matsuo,Jama Masjid, The Reserch and Information Center for Asian Studies, University of Tokyo, http://www.ioc.u- tokyo.ac.jp,2001,accsses,2014

27- Bunce, Fredrick W, The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent: Their Development and Iconography, Edition: First edition, Published by D.K. Print world (P) Ltd., New Delhi, India. 2008

28- Burton, John, Indian Islamic Architecture: Forms and Typologies, Sites and Monuments, Publisher: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2008

29-  George, Michell, Exploring Deccan Architecture with George Michell,2015, https://www.metmuseum.org, Access, 2018

30- Ghouse, Aqeel,2014, Revert the City's name from 'Kalaburagi' to 'Gulbarga' https://www.change.org/p/government-of-karnataka-revert-the-city-s-name-from-kalaburagi-to-gulbarga, Acsses,2016

31- Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning, 78, 104, 290, 410, 488. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994.

32- Hoag, John D. Islamic Architecture. Milan: Electa Editrice. 150, 1975

33- Jain, Jinisha, Structure as a document, Structural Analysis of Historic Construction, D, Ayala & Fodde, (eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London,289,2011

34- Jain, Manish, Principal Architect at Front Desk Architects , Published on Nov 28, 2011 access, 2016

35- Mondini, Sara. "Strategy and Ambiguities in the Decorative Programs of the Ahmad Shah Ι Bahmani Mausoleum ,,Editor: Stefano, Pellò, Borders Itineraries on the Edges of Iran . Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Italia, PP. 155-180, 2016

36- Ortega Andrade, Francisco, La construcción Sasánida , Contenido:, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, http://editorial.cda.ulpgc.es, 2008, Access 2013

37- patal, nagesh , A study on bahamani sultans monuments, p.g. department in tourism, India, 2016

38- Reitz, Falk, Pancayatana-Komplexe in Nordindien: Entstehung, Entwicklung und regionale Besonderheiten einer indischen Architektur form, PhD Thesis (in German), Awarded by Freie Universität Berlin,1997 p.38

39- Shokoohy, Mehrdad,Muslim Architecture of South India: The Sultanate of Ma'bar and the Traditions of Maritime Settlers on the Malabar and Coromandel Coasts (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa), Publisher, Routledge Curzon. London, 2013

40- Staff, sun, The Beauty of Bengali Temples - Part 1 http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/09-06/features428.htm, Staff .sun 2005, Access 2017

41- Tariq, S.H, Jinia, M.A, The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques, Global Journal Al-Thaqafah, (GJAT)VOL,3, ISSUE 1, 2013

42- Yazdani, Ghulam, Bidar, Its History and Monuments, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe,Delhi, 1995

43- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, “The Great Mosque of Gulbarga,” Islamic Culture 2, pp. 14-21, India, 1928

44- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, Mihrab of the jama Masjid at Gulbarga, http://mapio.net/pic/p-19834460/,2015, Access,2017

45- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, Gulbarga, http://indiarailinfo.com/departures/gulbarga-gr/146 , Acsses,2016

46- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, World Heritage Site". The-world-heritage-sites.com. 1986-11-28. Retrieved 2012-http://indiathatwas.com/?p=287,  Narayana, Hari. (2011), The Jumma Masjidâ “Gulbarga Fort Access 2017

47- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, https://www.beautifulmosque.com/Jama-Mosque-in-Gulbarga-India, Access 2016

48- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, Mapio.net, s.r.o. Juma Masjid-Gulbarga, http://mapio.net/pic/p-19834460/, Access 2016

49- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IN-KA.svg, Access 2018.

50- ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ, https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/Karnataka, Access 2018.