بررسی تطبیقی موجبات فسخ نکاح در فقه امامیه و حقوق پاکستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار فقه و مبانی حقوق دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشجوی ارشد فقه و مبانی حقوق، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

انحلال رابطۀ زوجیت فقط در مواردی خاص و آن هم در شرایطی که در فقه و قانون پیش‌بینی شده‌است، صورت می‌گیرد. در فقه امامیه و حقوق پاکستان که در حوزۀ شریعت براساس فقه حنفیه است، موجبات فسخ نکاح به‌طورکلی به سه قسم تقسیم شده‌است: دستۀ اول: خیار عیب، دستۀ دوم: خیار تدلیس، دستۀ سوم: تخلف از شرط صفت. این پژوهش به‌صورت توصیفی-تحلیلی با رویکرد تطبیقی با هدف آشنایی و برجسته‌کردن وجوه اشتراک و افتراق موجبات فسخ نکاح در فقه امامیه و حقوق کشور پاکستان تهیه و تنظیم شده‌است. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که در فقه امامیه برای فسخ نکاح مراجعه به دادگاه به‌جز عیب عنن لازم نیست و جنون تنها عیب مشترک در زوجین است؛ اما در احوال شخصیه پاکستان علاوه‌بر جنون، جذام و برص نیز جزو عیوب مشترک زوجین به‌شمار می‌روند و برای انحلال رابطۀ زوجیت بنابر عیوب مشترک و تخلف از شرط صفتی که در ضمن عقد گنجانده شده‌باشد، مراجعۀ زوجین به دادگاه الزامی دانسته شده‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative study of the causes for termination of nikah in the Imamia jurisprudence and in the legal system of Pakistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Keikha 1
  • Ameneh Salarifar 2
1 Associate professor of Jurisprudence and Principles of Islamic Law Dept, university of sistan and Baluchestan
2 Master of Jurisprudence and Principles of Islamic Law Dept, university of sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

     The dissolution of the relationship between parity only in specific cases, and in the absence of jurisprudence-projected for Pakistan's rights jurisprudence emamieh. cancellation of the mankind in General is divided into three regions. the first batch: fault , category: dissemble, category III: violation of the condition attribute. this study was descriptive analytic with ـ Adaptive approach to pay off the account funds the goal of dating vaftragh causes cancellation of Pakistan's rights jurisprudence emmieh. the findings of this research show the give thatin emamiehjurisprudence for the cancellation of a visit to the Court is not required, except ojanon anen flaw flaw is the only common law couples but in Pakistan In addition to the madness, leprosy are considered worth the couple shared obers also component faults dissolution of the relationship between parity according to the common trait of the otakhlf condition of imperfections that the marriage couples go to court is included is dissemble finally knowledge required and the violation of the condition attribute in emamiehjurisprudence, unlike Pakistan's cancellation of azasbab law .

Extended abstract

1.     Introduction

Termination of nikah is cancellation of spousal relationship one-sidedly which occurs due to lack of emotional relationship between the spouses so much so that it makes living together not only difficult but also harmful for the couple. Solidarity and unity of the family is one of the important issues in every society, however, for preventing occurrence of further losses to an already afflicted spouse as a consequence of problems in married life, sometimes, there is no other solution but divorce or termination of nikah between the couples. Therefore, comparison of juridical rules of religions and legal systems of the countries is important for paving the way for compilation of new laws, solving different law-related consequences of such separations and formation of simpler and more convenient solutions for these problems. With this objective, this survey tries to study the causes for termination of nikah in the Imamia jurisprudence and in Pakistan’s Personal Status Law; and in this way, it tries to present more introduction to Imamia jurisprudence and Pakistan’s Personal Status Law. It tries to find answers for the following questions: 1. What are the causes of termination of nikah according to Imamia jurisprudence and according to Pakistan’s legal system? 2. What are their common points and differences?

2.       Research methodology

This survey has been conducted by the use of descriptive-analytical method with a comparative attitude for compensation of the rights of the afflicted person in the niukah contract. In the light of Islam and revolution in the recent decades in Iran, the Islamic elites and jurisprudents have achieved and improved legislation of the laws of family according to the Islamic rules and regulations. This led to compilation of a rich collection of civil law in Iran by making use of Imamia jurisprudence. However, this has not been studied in details in the legal system of Pakistan, hence, not many sources and books of civil law were accessible in this country to study this issue. By comparing these two systems, this survey tries to achieve commonalities and differences and tries to lay the foundations for further research in this area.

3.     Discussion

Considering the religious, cultural and legal commonalities between the two countries of Iran and Pakistan, family law is significantly important in Islam and in these two countries. On the other hand, the legal system in Pakistan is common law; in this sense, it is one of the non-compiled legal systems; and when passing the sentence, the judge pays attention to the judicial attitudes and tradition more than to the law. This has made the civil laws of these two countries look at this issue differently, although they share many common points as well. The common causes for termination of nikah in the Imamia jurisprudence and the law of Pakistan are: 1. redhibition, 2. deception, 3. violation of quality term. Of course, there are some disagreements between them in the number of the common defects. Unlike Imamia jurisprudence, in Pakistan’s Personal Status Law, in addition to insanity, leprosy is also one of the common defects. In the case of deception, the husband cannot terminate nikah although divorce is controlled by him; and he has the right to terminate nikah only when a term specified in the nikah contract is violated; and unlike Imamia jurisprudence, the unconsent wife or husband has to go to the court so that termination of nikah can take place.

4.     Conclusion

Considering the stated issues above, we conclude that the causes of termination of nikah in Imamia jurisprudence and in the civil law of Pakistan are different from one another,

In the Imamia jurisprudence, termination of nikah does not require jurisdiction of the case in the court except for the case of husband’s sexual inability (enan), and in this case too, the role of the court is only to approve correctness of the conditions of termination not terminating the nikah contract itself. However, in Pakistan’s Personal Status Law, it is the contrary; and under any circumstances, by occurrence of the causes of termination of nikah, termination does not take place unless the judge passes the sentence. For termination of nikah to take place, it is required that either one of the parties with the right of termination had been unaware of the violation of the agreed term and be unconsented to it; otherwise, his/her right of termination is invalid.
The common defects in the civil laws of Pakistan that give the spouses the right to terminate nikah are insanity, leprosy (according to the famous opinions of Hanafi scholars), and in the famous opinion of Imamia jurisprudence, it is only insanity.
The defects specific to men in Pakistan’s Personal Status Law are man’s sexual inability (enan), leave (jobb), khasaa, insanity and leprosy (common defects) which give the wife the right to terminate nikah provided that the husband had any of them in the time of nikah and she was unaware of it or has not announced her consent to it. In the Imamia jurisprudence, the defects specific to men are only those mentioned defects (enan, jobb and khasaa) in addition to insanity.
The defects specific to wife in the Imamia jurisprudence are: gharn, ratgh, efza, afl, leprosy, disability and blindness of both eyes which give the husband the right to terminate nikah; but in the civil law of Pakistan, these defects do not give the husband the right to terminate nikah because divorce is controlled by him.
There are some differences between Imamia jurisprudence and Pakistan’s Personal Status Law in the issue of deception. According to Pakistan’s law, in the case of deception, the husband does not have the right to terminate nikah, but in the Imamia jurisprudence, he has the right to do so, and in addition to that, he can demand compensation from the wife or the third deceiving party.
In the case of violation of the quality term, whether it has been mentioned in the nikah contract or specified later, according to Imamia jurisprudence, it gives the other party the right to terminate nikah. However, in the law of Pakistan, the right to termination is only given if that term has been mentioned in the nikah contract.   

 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cancellation
  • infringement
  • dissemble
  • imperfections
  • lazrer rule azshert trait

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