تحلیل گیاه‌مردمان نخستین (جم، کیومرث و فریدون) در اساطیر هندوایرانی با محوریت زندگانی کیومرث

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

مرور اساطیر هندوایرانی گویای آن است که این مردمان به‌طور اعم و ایرانیان به‌طور اخص، از عصر پیشامهاجرت، پیوندی نزدیک با گیاه داشتند. یک سبب مهم کوچ بزرگ آریاییان، پیوندشان با گیاه و موانع رشد وسیع گیاه در سرما و تاریکی مساکن اولیه‌شان بوده‌است. یکی از جالب‌ترین نمودهای پیوند دیرین هندوایرانیان با گیاه، حضور وسیع گیاه‌مردمان نخستین در اساطیر این قوم است. مقولۀ «گیاه‌مردم» که نظریۀ پیشنهادی این مقاله است، ترسیم‌کنندۀ یکی‌انگاری انسان نخستین و گیاه در نگاه هندوایرانیان باستان است. این مقوله از یک سو گویای پیوند عمیق و وسیع این مردم با پدیدۀ گیاه و کشاورزی است و از سوی دیگر، گویای پیوند ناگسستنی بسیاری از طلوع‌ها و غروب‌های پادشاهی با آیین‌های باروری زمین است. در این مقاله با بررسی نمونه‌های انسان نخستین در اساطیر هندوایرانی ازقبیل فریدون و جم و به‌ویژه کیومرث به روش تحلیلی، به جستجوی گیاه‌مردمان نخستین در اساطیر هندوایرانی و تدوین و پیشنهاد چرخه‌ای تازه برای تحلیل روایت‌های اساطیری بپردازیم، به‌نام «چرخۀ زندگانی گیاه‌مردمان». از دیگر یافته‌ها و نتایج مقالۀ حاضر آن است که ترجمۀ گیّه‌مرتن (کیومرث) به «زندۀ میرا» که ترجمۀ رایج و پذیرفته‌شدۀ این نام است، ترجمه‌ای دقیق نیست و این نام می‌تواند معادل «گیاه‌مردم» (مردِ گیاهی) باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The initial of Human- plant (Jam, Kayumarth& Faridun) in Indoiranian myths in based on kayumarth life

نویسنده [English]

  • Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani
Assistant professor of Persian language and literature, payame noor university
چکیده [English]

Review of myth means watching the imagination of human about himself and environment in the past centuries. Indo-Iranian to the general and Iranian In particular, knew agriculture and farming and its value and effects, from the primary migration.an important reason of Aryan great migration was agriculture jobs – however simple method and form- and  preventive factors in cooling weather condition and darkness of their primary houses. The Iranian living agriculture was reflected in scene of fortresses which were collection of buildings agricultural and Animal husbandry in the age of the great migration. but one of the most wonderful aspect of ancient connection between Iranian and  agriculture, was the presence of The initial Human-plant in kingdom myth and the continuous relation of dawn and sunset of many of Iranian kingdoms with the custom of fertility of  earth. in this research, by studying and evaluating the Iranian myth with using the analytical method, We try to search about The initial Human-plant in Iranian myth and edit and suggestion the new cycle for Analyzing the mythical narration by the name of the Human- plant life. Also, the exact meaning of kayumarth is the Human-plant.
 
 
Extensive Abstract:
1- Introduction
Myth is a picture of attitude, knowledge, culture, livelihoods and other components of human life in the distant past. Ancient Indo-Iranian mythology is also a narration that has passed since Indo-Iranian since the pre-Aryan masses to the beginning of history. By care in the ancient Indo-Iranian mythology, we can learn about IndoIranians livelihoods, especially longtime ties with the plant. These people were shepherd and farmers in the northern earth orbits and Their migration also caused the same livelihood associated with the plant Which made the search for warmer lands necessary. As soon as the warmer lands were available, the Aryans created residential, agricultural-livestock collections called "Var". That must mean housing, homeland and territory, and the Vars was filled with the trappings of Agriculture. IndoIranians long and unbroken link with the plants, in the mythology of these people would have been wonderful had profound effects and projections. One of these images, were primary "Human-plants". The people whose creation or birth are due to the fact that they increase the plants Or that their death causes or increases the plants. In the Archetypal analysis, these peoples can be themselves plants And some of them have explicitly declared the plant, like Mashy and Mashyane and also their father, Kayumarth; other specimens are strongly bound to the plant, like Faridun and Jam, which were born with the extract of the plant or Siavosh, who died, caused the plant to grow and other examples.  The cycle of growing-pouring- growing of plant was one of the most familiar and most frequent cycles in the periphery. This cycle was so effective on the Aryan dynamics that they saw the birth-death-birth of the people similar to it And they considered elderly people with  plant origin. So Human-plants life cycle theory can be the New interpretation and efficient in investigating of elderly people living in the ancient Aryans mythology.
 
2- Research methodology
This research is based on the description of the primitive personality of Indo-Iranian mythology and analysis of their mythological narratives, especially Jam, Faridun and Kayumarth. In this paper, according to the Kayumarth myth And his direct children Which they have considered in a number of mythological narratives as plant and by comparing the narrative of their lives with the life of Faridun and Jam, we come to the theory of the plant-human life cycle in the Indo-Iranian mythology.
 
3- Discussion
According to the Aryans, the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. This incident should not only be a plant shrub or extraction, It should, however, be recognized as a symbol of the entire set of breeding, spreading, dredging and planting, Because the life of the people of the Aryan godlike peoples, such as the Kayumarth (Yashts, 1377: Farvardinishht, point 95), Jam and Faridun (Hamzaye Esfahani, 1346: 33) It was accompanied by the pleasure of the plants and their increase, along with the ritual of Harmful Holy Plants and Medicinal Plants. On the contrary, any incident in the human world would have caused an incident in the world of plants As the kayumarth, siavosh and nowzar were killed, the plant was planting. As the primary Aryans, they owe their lives to the plant, They considered the killing of humans and watering the soil with human blood, causing plant fertility. This belief was also the result of the obvious experiences of the Aryans, Because they saw that humans and livestocks were created from the plant and when the human and the livestock die, you also grow from their soil, So humans are plants, and when they die, they grow again. Believing in being a human beings among the Aryans was a native belief, Because it were in relation with the other two believes in Aryans: Believing in the god of the sun and believing in the god of “farre”. The plant grows from sunlight and the primary Aryan human is also from the sun race. Farmer Aryans have found that The growth of the plant is associated with the sun's rotation overnight and one solar year, Also, Farra that is like the sun, has a home inside the king and Farra causes plant growth. Interestingly, the plant itself is one of the carriers of Farra (Ardavirafname, 1993: 57). Because the spirit of the king is Farra's house, The birth and death of the king, sunrise and sunset, and increasing and decreasing of Farra, all are affecting the plant life. Therefore, the rising and dying of kingdom in the Aryan tribes is the process of transferring of Farra to ensure the prosperity of the Aryan world and their fields.
 
4- Conclusion
Primary people in Aryan mythology are creatures with plant origin Or that the Aryans narrated their lives in the same way as the plants lived. The life cycle of the primary Aryan people is in accordance with the life cycle of the plants: Rise, grow, reached and swollen the fruits and ovaries, rupture and pour the contents of the ovaries and fruits, reburied. Also, these steps are in accordance with the stages of personality development in Jung's theory of psychology. The cycle of plant growth-Shed- growth, the cycle of Sunrise-Sunset-Sunrise and the cycle of the  of Farra's increasing and decreasing can be traced simultaneously in the life of Indo-Iranian Human-plant, Because in outer space, the life cycle of the plant is associated with the sun cycle in a day and a year. Also, the Aryans, considered the, Farre cause of the flourishing of everything, including plants. On the other hand, the primary Aryan man was considered as a plant, it was from The race of the Sun and a Owner of Farra. As the formulation of the individuality process in Jung's psychology has led to many improvements in the mythological critique, And gave us a more accurate understanding of mythological narratives, Recognizing and elaborating the life cycle of the Indo-Iranian Human-plant and adapting it to the life of the primary people of mythology can help us to recognize the more ancient forms of the lives of these people and the discovery of the drowning and transformation of their lives. the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. The death of the primary people of mythology is also coincident with the events of the world of plants. Just as pouring the plant, the fertilizing of the earth and the growth of fresh and succulent plants, the death of the primary human is also a rebirth of reproduction and transferring of Farra from the corroded body to a new body resulting in the continuity of happiness and abundance in the world. It is possible to translate “Gayya maretan” (Kayumarth) into a living one that dies, but by proving the plant life of Kayumarth, “plant human” can be regarded as more accurate and more accurately equivalent to the name of Kayaumarth.
 
 1. Bahar, Mehrdad, Asatir e Iran, Tehran: Bonyad e Farhang e Iran, 1352.
 
2. _____________ , Pazhooheshi dar asatir e Iran, First edition, Tehran: Agah. 1375.
3. Bal'ami, Boo Ali Mohammad, Tarikh e Balami, corrected by Mohammad Taghi e  Bahar, Tehran: Zavvar, 1353.
4. Birooni, Aboorayhan, Asarolbaghia, Translated by Akbar e Danaseresht, Tehran: Ebn e sina, 1352.
5. Bondahesh, Frabbagh Dadegi, Translated by Mehrdad e Bahar, Tehran; Toos, 1369.
6. Borhan e ghate, Mohammad ebn e Khalaf e Tabrizi, Tehran,Sherkat e tabe ketab, 1317.
7. Dinevari, Aboohanife Ahmad ebn e Davood, Akhbar alteval, Translated by Sadegh e Nashat, Tehran: Bonyad e Farhang e Iran, 1346.
8. Ebn e asir, Ezzoddin ali, Akhbar e Iran az Alkamel e Ebe asir, Ternslated by Mohammad ebrahim e Bastani e Parizi, Tehran: Tehran university, 1349.
9. Eliade, Mircea, Chashmandazhaye ostoore, Translated by Jalal e sattari, Tehran: Fekr e rooz, 1362.
10.Ferdowsi, Abolghasem, Shahname (Based on Moscow print), 3th edition, Tehran: Payam e adalat, 1389.
11.Gardizi, Aboosaeid  Abdolhay, Zaynolakhbar, Corrected by Abdolhay Habibi, Tehran: Bonyade Farhang e Iran,1347.
12. Guerin, Wilfred and others, Rahanamaye rooykardhaye naghd e adabi, Translated by Zahra Mihankhah, 3th edition, Tehran: Ettelaat, 1377.
13.Hamzeye Esfahani, Aboo Abdellah Hamze ebn e Hasan, Tarikh e payambaran va shahan (Seni molookelarz valanbia), Translated by Jafar e shear, Tehran: Bonyad e farhang e Iran, 1346.
14.Herodotus, Tarikh e Herodot (six generation). Translated by Hadi Hedayati, Tehran: Tehran University, 1336- 1341.
15.Kazzazi, Mirjalaleddin, Nameye bastan, First edition, Tehran: Samt, 1379.
16. Koyaji, Jahangir, Pazhooheshhaei dar Shahname, Translated by Jalil e Doostkhah, First edition, Tehran: Samt, 1371.
17. Masoodi, Abolhasan Ali ebne Hosayn, Moroojozzahab, Translated by Abolghasem e Payande, Tehran: Bongah e Tarjome o nashr e ketab, 1344.
18. ____________________________, Altanbih Valeshraf, Translated by Abolghasem e Payande, 2th edition, Tehran: Sherkat e entesharat e elmi o farhangi.
19. Minooye kherad, Tarjomeye Ahmad e Tafazzoli, Tehran: Bonyad e farhang e Iran, 1354.
20. Mostowfi, Hamdollah, Tarikh e gozide, be ehtemam e Abdolhasyan e navaei, First  edition, Tehran: Amirkabir, 1362.
21. Nass, John, Tarikh e jame e adyan az aghaz ta emrooz, Translated by  Ali  Asghar e Hekmat, First edition, Tehran, Franklin, 1344.
22. Naghavi, Naghib, Afsaneye Jam ze daftar nebeshte gah e bastan, First edition, Mashhad: Astan e ghods e razavi, 1379.
23.Pirnia, Moshiroddole Hasan, Tarikh e Iran e bastan, 5th edition, Tehran: Donyay e ketab, 1370.
24.Ravayat e Pahlavi, Translated by Mahshid e Mirfakhraei, Tehran: Moasseseye motaleat o tahghighat e farhangi, 1367.
25.Siasi, Aliakbar, Nazariehaye shakhsiat ya makateb e ravanshenasi, 3th edition, Tehran: Tehran University, 1367.
26. Tarjomeye chand matn e Pahlavi, Translated by Mohammad Taghi e Bahar, First edition, Tehran: Sazman e chap o entesharat e vezarat e farhang o ershad e eslami, 1379.
27. Vandidad, By Hashim Razi, First  edition, Tehran: Soore, 1376.
28.Yasna, Translated by ebrahim e Poordavood, Tehran: Tehran University, 2536.
29.Yashtha, Interpretation and Writing by ebrahim e Purdavood, First edition, Tehran: Asatir, 1377.
30.Yong, Karl Gustavo, Ravanshenasi zamir e nakhodagah, Translated by Mohammad Ali e Amiri. 3th edition, Tehran: Entesharat e elmi o farhangi, 2004.
 
 
 
 
Review of myth means watching the imagination of human about himself and environment in the past centuries. Indo-Iranian to the general and Iranian In particular, knew agriculture and farming and its value and effects, from the primary migration.an important reason of Aryan great migration was agriculture jobs – however simple method and form- and  preventive factors in cooling weather condition and darkness of their primary houses. The Iranian living agriculture was reflected in scene of fortresses which were collection of buildings agricultural and Animal husbandry in the age of the great migration. but one of the most wonderful aspect of ancient connection between Iranian and  agriculture, was the presence of The initial Human-plant in kingdom myth and the continuous relation of dawn and sunset of many of Iranian kingdoms with the custom of fertility of  earth. in this research, by studying and evaluating the Iranian myth with using the analytical method, We try to search about The initial Human-plant in Iranian myth and edit and suggestion the new cycle for Analyzing the mythical narration by the name of the Human- plant life. Also, the exact meaning of kayumarth is the Human-plant.
 
 
Extensive Abstract:
1- Introduction
Myth is a picture of attitude, knowledge, culture, livelihoods and other components of human life in the distant past. Ancient Indo-Iranian mythology is also a narration that has passed since Indo-Iranian since the pre-Aryan masses to the beginning of history. By care in the ancient Indo-Iranian mythology, we can learn about IndoIranians livelihoods, especially longtime ties with the plant. These people were shepherd and farmers in the northern earth orbits and Their migration also caused the same livelihood associated with the plant Which made the search for warmer lands necessary. As soon as the warmer lands were available, the Aryans created residential, agricultural-livestock collections called "Var". That must mean housing, homeland and territory, and the Vars was filled with the trappings of Agriculture. IndoIranians long and unbroken link with the plants, in the mythology of these people would have been wonderful had profound effects and projections. One of these images, were primary "Human-plants". The people whose creation or birth are due to the fact that they increase the plants Or that their death causes or increases the plants. In the Archetypal analysis, these peoples can be themselves plants And some of them have explicitly declared the plant, like Mashy and Mashyane and also their father, Kayumarth; other specimens are strongly bound to the plant, like Faridun and Jam, which were born with the extract of the plant or Siavosh, who died, caused the plant to grow and other examples.  The cycle of growing-pouring- growing of plant was one of the most familiar and most frequent cycles in the periphery. This cycle was so effective on the Aryan dynamics that they saw the birth-death-birth of the people similar to it And they considered elderly people with  plant origin. So Human-plants life cycle theory can be the New interpretation and efficient in investigating of elderly people living in the ancient Aryans mythology.
 
2- Research methodology
This research is based on the description of the primitive personality of Indo-Iranian mythology and analysis of their mythological narratives, especially Jam, Faridun and Kayumarth. In this paper, according to the Kayumarth myth And his direct children Which they have considered in a number of mythological narratives as plant and by comparing the narrative of their lives with the life of Faridun and Jam, we come to the theory of the plant-human life cycle in the Indo-Iranian mythology.
 
3- Discussion
According to the Aryans, the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. This incident should not only be a plant shrub or extraction, It should, however, be recognized as a symbol of the entire set of breeding, spreading, dredging and planting, Because the life of the people of the Aryan godlike peoples, such as the Kayumarth (Yashts, 1377: Farvardinishht, point 95), Jam and Faridun (Hamzaye Esfahani, 1346: 33) It was accompanied by the pleasure of the plants and their increase, along with the ritual of Harmful Holy Plants and Medicinal Plants. On the contrary, any incident in the human world would have caused an incident in the world of plants As the kayumarth, siavosh and nowzar were killed, the plant was planting. As the primary Aryans, they owe their lives to the plant, They considered the killing of humans and watering the soil with human blood, causing plant fertility. This belief was also the result of the obvious experiences of the Aryans, Because they saw that humans and livestocks were created from the plant and when the human and the livestock die, you also grow from their soil, So humans are plants, and when they die, they grow again. Believing in being a human beings among the Aryans was a native belief, Because it were in relation with the other two believes in Aryans: Believing in the god of the sun and believing in the god of “farre”. The plant grows from sunlight and the primary Aryan human is also from the sun race. Farmer Aryans have found that The growth of the plant is associated with the sun's rotation overnight and one solar year, Also, Farra that is like the sun, has a home inside the king and Farra causes plant growth. Interestingly, the plant itself is one of the carriers of Farra (Ardavirafname, 1993: 57). Because the spirit of the king is Farra's house, The birth and death of the king, sunrise and sunset, and increasing and decreasing of Farra, all are affecting the plant life. Therefore, the rising and dying of kingdom in the Aryan tribes is the process of transferring of Farra to ensure the prosperity of the Aryan world and their fields.
 
4- Conclusion
Primary people in Aryan mythology are creatures with plant origin Or that the Aryans narrated their lives in the same way as the plants lived. The life cycle of the primary Aryan people is in accordance with the life cycle of the plants: Rise, grow, reached and swollen the fruits and ovaries, rupture and pour the contents of the ovaries and fruits, reburied. Also, these steps are in accordance with the stages of personality development in Jung's theory of psychology. The cycle of plant growth-Shed- growth, the cycle of Sunrise-Sunset-Sunrise and the cycle of the  of Farra's increasing and decreasing can be traced simultaneously in the life of Indo-Iranian Human-plant, Because in outer space, the life cycle of the plant is associated with the sun cycle in a day and a year. Also, the Aryans, considered the, Farre cause of the flourishing of everything, including plants. On the other hand, the primary Aryan man was considered as a plant, it was from The race of the Sun and a Owner of Farra. As the formulation of the individuality process in Jung's psychology has led to many improvements in the mythological critique, And gave us a more accurate understanding of mythological narratives, Recognizing and elaborating the life cycle of the Indo-Iranian Human-plant and adapting it to the life of the primary people of mythology can help us to recognize the more ancient forms of the lives of these people and the discovery of the drowning and transformation of their lives. the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. The death of the primary people of mythology is also coincident with the events of the world of plants. Just as pouring the plant, the fertilizing of the earth and the growth of fresh and succulent plants, the death of the primary human is also a rebirth of reproduction and transferring of Farra from the corroded body to a new body resulting in the continuity of happiness and abundance in the world. It is possible to translate “Gayya maretan” (Kayumarth) into a living one that dies, but by proving the plant life of Kayumarth, “plant human” can be regarded as more accurate and more accurately equivalent to the name of Kayaumarth.
 
 1. Bahar, Mehrdad, Asatir e Iran, Tehran: Bonyad e Farhang e Iran, 1352.
 
2. _____________ , Pazhooheshi dar asatir e Iran, First edition, Tehran: Agah. 1375.
3. Bal'ami, Boo Ali Mohammad, Tarikh e Balami, corrected by Mohammad Taghi e  Bahar, Tehran: Zavvar, 1353.
4. Birooni, Aboorayhan, Asarolbaghia, Translated by Akbar e Danaseresht, Tehran: Ebn e sina, 1352.
5. Bondahesh, Frabbagh Dadegi, Translated by Mehrdad e Bahar, Tehran; Toos, 1369.
6. Borhan e ghate, Mohammad ebn e Khalaf e Tabrizi, Tehran,Sherkat e tabe ketab, 1317.
7. Dinevari, Aboohanife Ahmad ebn e Davood, Akhbar alteval, Translated by Sadegh e Nashat, Tehran: Bonyad e Farhang e Iran, 1346.
8. Ebn e asir, Ezzoddin ali, Akhbar e Iran az Alkamel e Ebe asir, Ternslated by Mohammad ebrahim e Bastani e Parizi, Tehran: Tehran university, 1349.
9. Eliade, Mircea, Chashmandazhaye ostoore, Translated by Jalal e sattari, Tehran: Fekr e rooz, 1362.
10.Ferdowsi, Abolghasem, Shahname (Based on Moscow print), 3th edition, Tehran: Payam e adalat, 1389.
11.Gardizi, Aboosaeid  Abdolhay, Zaynolakhbar, Corrected by Abdolhay Habibi, Tehran: Bonyade Farhang e Iran,1347.
12. Guerin, Wilfred and others, Rahanamaye rooykardhaye naghd e adabi, Translated by Zahra Mihankhah, 3th edition, Tehran: Ettelaat, 1377.
13.Hamzeye Esfahani, Aboo Abdellah Hamze ebn e Hasan, Tarikh e payambaran va shahan (Seni molookelarz valanbia), Translated by Jafar e shear, Tehran: Bonyad e farhang e Iran, 1346.
14.Herodotus, Tarikh e Herodot (six generation). Translated by Hadi Hedayati, Tehran: Tehran University, 1336- 1341.
15.Kazzazi, Mirjalaleddin, Nameye bastan, First edition, Tehran: Samt, 1379.
16. Koyaji, Jahangir, Pazhooheshhaei dar Shahname, Translated by Jalil e Doostkhah, First edition, Tehran: Samt, 1371.
17. Masoodi, Abolhasan Ali ebne Hosayn, Moroojozzahab, Translated by Abolghasem e Payande, Tehran: Bongah e Tarjome o nashr e ketab, 1344.
18. ____________________________, Altanbih Valeshraf, Translated by Abolghasem e Payande, 2th edition, Tehran: Sherkat e entesharat e elmi o farhangi.
19. Minooye kherad, Tarjomeye Ahmad e Tafazzoli, Tehran: Bonyad e farhang e Iran, 1354.
20. Mostowfi, Hamdollah, Tarikh e gozide, be ehtemam e Abdolhasyan e navaei, First  edition, Tehran: Amirkabir, 1362.
21. Nass, John, Tarikh e jame e adyan az aghaz ta emrooz, Translated by  Ali  Asghar e Hekmat, First edition, Tehran, Franklin, 1344.
22. Naghavi, Naghib, Afsaneye Jam ze daftar nebeshte gah e bastan, First edition, Mashhad: Astan e ghods e razavi, 1379.
23.Pirnia, Moshiroddole Hasan, Tarikh e Iran e bastan, 5th edition, Tehran: Donyay e ketab, 1370.
24.Ravayat e Pahlavi, Translated by Mahshid e Mirfakhraei, Tehran: Moasseseye motaleat o tahghighat e farhangi, 1367.
25.Siasi, Aliakbar, Nazariehaye shakhsiat ya makateb e ravanshenasi, 3th edition, Tehran: Tehran University, 1367.
26. Tarjomeye chand matn e Pahlavi, Translated by Mohammad Taghi e Bahar, First edition, Tehran: Sazman e chap o entesharat e vezarat e farhang o ershad e eslami, 1379.
27. Vandidad, By Hashim Razi, First  edition, Tehran: Soore, 1376.
28.Yasna, Translated by ebrahim e Poordavood, Tehran: Tehran University, 2536.
29.Yashtha, Interpretation and Writing by ebrahim e Purdavood, First edition, Tehran: Asatir, 1377.
30.Yong, Karl Gustavo, Ravanshenasi zamir e nakhodagah, Translated by Mohammad Ali e Amiri. 3th edition, Tehran: Entesharat e elmi o farhangi, 2004.
 
 
Review of myth means watching the imagination of human about himself and environment in the past centuries. Indo-Iranian to the general and Iranian In particular, knew agriculture and farming and its value and effects, from the primary migration.an important reason of Aryan great migration was agriculture jobs – however simple method and form- and  preventive factors in cooling weather condition and darkness of their primary houses. The Iranian living agriculture was reflected in scene of fortresses which were collection of buildings agricultural and Animal husbandry in the age of the great migration. but one of the most wonderful aspect of ancient connection between Iranian and  agriculture, was the presence of The initial Human-plant in kingdom myth and the continuous relation of dawn and sunset of many of Iranian kingdoms with the custom of fertility of  earth. in this research, by studying and evaluating the Iranian myth with using the analytical method, We try to search about The initial Human-plant in Iranian myth and edit and suggestion the new cycle for Analyzing the mythical narration by the name of the Human- plant life. Also, the exact meaning of kayumarth is the Human-plant.
 
 
Extensive Abstract:
1- Introduction
Myth is a picture of attitude, knowledge, culture, livelihoods and other components of human life in the distant past. Ancient Indo-Iranian mythology is also a narration that has passed since Indo-Iranian since the pre-Aryan masses to the beginning of history. By care in the ancient Indo-Iranian mythology, we can learn about IndoIranians livelihoods, especially longtime ties with the plant. These people were shepherd and farmers in the northern earth orbits and Their migration also caused the same livelihood associated with the plant Which made the search for warmer lands necessary. As soon as the warmer lands were available, the Aryans created residential, agricultural-livestock collections called "Var". That must mean housing, homeland and territory, and the Vars was filled with the trappings of Agriculture. IndoIranians long and unbroken link with the plants, in the mythology of these people would have been wonderful had profound effects and projections. One of these images, were primary "Human-plants". The people whose creation or birth are due to the fact that they increase the plants Or that their death causes or increases the plants. In the Archetypal analysis, these peoples can be themselves plants And some of them have explicitly declared the plant, like Mashy and Mashyane and also their father, Kayumarth; other specimens are strongly bound to the plant, like Faridun and Jam, which were born with the extract of the plant or Siavosh, who died, caused the plant to grow and other examples.  The cycle of growing-pouring- growing of plant was one of the most familiar and most frequent cycles in the periphery. This cycle was so effective on the Aryan dynamics that they saw the birth-death-birth of the people similar to it And they considered elderly people with  plant origin. So Human-plants life cycle theory can be the New interpretation and efficient in investigating of elderly people living in the ancient Aryans mythology.
 
2- Research methodology
This research is based on the description of the primitive personality of Indo-Iranian mythology and analysis of their mythological narratives, especially Jam, Faridun and Kayumarth. In this paper, according to the Kayumarth myth And his direct children Which they have considered in a number of mythological narratives as plant and by comparing the narrative of their lives with the life of Faridun and Jam, we come to the theory of the plant-human life cycle in the Indo-Iranian mythology.
 
3- Discussion
According to the Aryans, the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. This incident should not only be a plant shrub or extraction, It should, however, be recognized as a symbol of the entire set of breeding, spreading, dredging and planting, Because the life of the people of the Aryan godlike peoples, such as the Kayumarth (Yashts, 1377: Farvardinishht, point 95), Jam and Faridun (Hamzaye Esfahani, 1346: 33) It was accompanied by the pleasure of the plants and their increase, along with the ritual of Harmful Holy Plants and Medicinal Plants. On the contrary, any incident in the human world would have caused an incident in the world of plants As the kayumarth, siavosh and nowzar were killed, the plant was planting. As the primary Aryans, they owe their lives to the plant, They considered the killing of humans and watering the soil with human blood, causing plant fertility. This belief was also the result of the obvious experiences of the Aryans, Because they saw that humans and livestocks were created from the plant and when the human and the livestock die, you also grow from their soil, So humans are plants, and when they die, they grow again. Believing in being a human beings among the Aryans was a native belief, Because it were in relation with the other two believes in Aryans: Believing in the god of the sun and believing in the god of “farre”. The plant grows from sunlight and the primary Aryan human is also from the sun race. Farmer Aryans have found that The growth of the plant is associated with the sun's rotation overnight and one solar year, Also, Farra that is like the sun, has a home inside the king and Farra causes plant growth. Interestingly, the plant itself is one of the carriers of Farra (Ardavirafname, 1993: 57). Because the spirit of the king is Farra's house, The birth and death of the king, sunrise and sunset, and increasing and decreasing of Farra, all are affecting the plant life. Therefore, the rising and dying of kingdom in the Aryan tribes is the process of transferring of Farra to ensure the prosperity of the Aryan world and their fields.
 
4- Conclusion
Primary people in Aryan mythology are creatures with plant origin Or that the Aryans narrated their lives in the same way as the plants lived. The life cycle of the primary Aryan people is in accordance with the life cycle of the plants: Rise, grow, reached and swollen the fruits and ovaries, rupture and pour the contents of the ovaries and fruits, reburied. Also, these steps are in accordance with the stages of personality development in Jung's theory of psychology. The cycle of plant growth-Shed- growth, the cycle of Sunrise-Sunset-Sunrise and the cycle of the  of Farra's increasing and decreasing can be traced simultaneously in the life of Indo-Iranian Human-plant, Because in outer space, the life cycle of the plant is associated with the sun cycle in a day and a year. Also, the Aryans, considered the, Farre cause of the flourishing of everything, including plants. On the other hand, the primary Aryan man was considered as a plant, it was from The race of the Sun and a Owner of Farra. As the formulation of the individuality process in Jung's psychology has led to many improvements in the mythological critique, And gave us a more accurate understanding of mythological narratives, Recognizing and elaborating the life cycle of the Indo-Iranian Human-plant and adapting it to the life of the primary people of mythology can help us to recognize the more ancient forms of the lives of these people and the discovery of the drowning and transformation of their lives. the transplantation of the plant with humans has been such that Any incident in the world of plants has caused an incident in the human world. The creation of many godlike people, such as Jam and Faridun, was caused by the aging extract of the holy plant by their father. The death of the primary people of mythology is also coincident with the events of the world of plants. Just as pouring the plant, the fertilizing of the earth and the growth of fresh and succulent plants, the death of the primary human is also a rebirth of reproduction and transferring of Farra from the corroded body to a new body resulting in the continuity of happiness and abundance in the world. It is possible to translate “Gayya maretan” (Kayumarth) into a living one that dies, but by proving the plant life of Kayumarth, “plant human” can be regarded as more accurate and more accurately equivalent to the name of Kayaumarth.
 
 
 
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human-plants
  • plant
  • Kayumarth
  • Jam
  • Faridun

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