یکی از بخشهای مهم فولکلور، آداب و رسوم و سنن فرهنگی است. مبحثی که با دقّت در رفتار فردی و اجتماعی افراد یک جامعه میتوان نشانههای آن را مشاهده و تأثیر آنها را در شئونات زندگی درک کرد. تجربۀ این عناصر فرهنگی و همزیستی با آنها در ذهن و زبان شعرا تأثیرگذار بوده و در دورههای مختلف دستاویز خلق مضامین جدید شدهاست. آزاد بلگرامی در زمرۀ شاعران پارسیگوی هندی است که در اشعار وی آداب و سنتهای فرهنگی اسلامی و هندی حضور و ظهور چشمگیری دارد؛ ازاینرو نوشتار حاضر در پی آن است که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مبحث آداب و رسوم را که دارای بیشترین بسامد در شعر بلگرامی است، بررسی کند و به این سؤال پاسخ دهد که آداب و سنن فرهنگی در غزل آزاد بلگرامی، بومی مردمان هند است یا تحتتأثیر فرهنگ اسلامی یا ایرانی قرار گرفتهاست؟ نتایج بهدستآمده نشاندهندۀ این موضوع است که برخی از آداب و رسوم ازجمله خال زنان هند، مردهسوزی و جویدنِ پان، خاص و بومی مردمان هند است؛ اما بیشترین بسامد مربوط به مواردی است که شاعر از فرهنگ اسلامی و ایرانی تأثیر پذیرفته است؛ ازجمله آداب مهماننوازی، سوگواری و اعیاد مذهبی که بسامد بالایی هم در شعر او دارند و به نظر میرسد علقههای دینی بلگرامی و توجه فراوان به سنن دینی، وی را از توجه بیشتر به رسوم ملی و شاد هند غافل کردهاست.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Reflection of cultural customs and traditions in Belgrami’s lyric poems
One of the most important parts of folklore or folk elements is cultural customs and traditions, a subject that can be carefully observed in the individual and social behavior of people in a society, its signs can be seen and their impact on life can be understood. The experience of these cultural elements and coexistence with them has been influential in the minds and tongues of poets and has been used in various periods to create new themes. Azad Belgrami is one of the Persian poets of India that Islamic and Indian cultural customs and traditions has a significant presence and emergence in his poems. Therefore, the present article seeks to examine the topic of etiquette and customs, which has the highest frequency in Belgrami poetry, in a descriptive-analytical way and to answer the question that cultural customs and traditions in the Belgrami lyric are native to the Indian people. Or has it been influenced by Islamic or Iranian culture? The results show that some customs and traditions, including Hindu women’s beauty spot, burning and Pan chewing, are specific and native to the Indian people, But the highest frequency is related to that The poet is influenced by Islamic and Iranian Culture Including the etiquette of hospitality, mourning and religious festivals - which are also very common in his poetry, and it seems that Belgradmi's religious interests and a lot of attention to religious traditions, have neglected him to pay more attention to India's national and happy customs.
Examining and paying attention to the cultural and behavioral characteristics of the people of a land introduces us to a variety of behaviors that simply and free from any forms of imagination and artificiality, express the inner feelings and concerns of simple and honest people with special linguistic and structural features, And "there are differences with the culture of properties and literature or poetry and the official prose of that nation" (Razmjoo, 1993: 136), Sometimes it shows the commonality between nations and in some cases it expresses the cultural distinction of different nations from each other. This part of the culture includes customs, beliefs and traditions, rituals, celebrations, stories, proverbs, legends, myths, folk and alley’s songs, etc. (Mirnia, 1990: 263); They are called "Public culture", or folklore, which is transmitted and used either in different ways from the past generation of a society to the future or through the cultural connections of the neighbors. And among the various sections of popular culture, cultural customs and traditions are more apparent in individual and social behaviors, because they are the result of years of experience and coexistence of people in a society with them from childhood to death. In addition to behavior, collaborating with customs and traditions has created valuable images and themes in the minds and tongues of poets with cultural support, in such a way that fewer divan and works can be found that have been removed from the influence of these cultural elements, and have not been used as a basis for new meanings and concepts. The poems of subcontinent poets and the lyric poems of Belgrami - the Persian-Indian poet who is the subject of this article - have used and benefited from this rule and in their love poems in various ways has referred to Islamic customs (mourning and burial rites, religious holidays, etc.), Hindi (burnt dead, chewing pan and Hindu mole) and sometimes common traditions with Iranians such as Nowruz and Yelda night. Common customs and traditions that are the result of coexistence of Iranians and Indians in the distant past And this neighborhood and being together goes so far that Nehru writes about it: among the many peoples and races who have come into contact with and influenced Indian life and culture, the Iranians were The oldest and most persistent, In fact, relations between them were even before the beginning of the Indo-Aryan civilization, because the Indo-Aryan tribes and the ancient Iranians both separated from a common lineage and adopted separate ways (Nehru, 1971, vol 2: 246). In addition, the migration of the Zoroastrian community, causes transferring Iranian culture and customs to India (Kardosh, 2005: 83) and "in the seventh and eighth centuries ... the Muslim states of India ... also became the publishers of Iranian culture and language." To the extent that they accepted the feasts and customs of the Iranian court with great loyalty” (Fallah, 2010: 83). Therefore, it is necessary to know the popular elements and their type in the poems of poets and the type of thematic construction with it. Also, The Divan of Subcontinent Poets includes folk elements, customs, and cultural traditions, and Azad Belgrami is one of the powerful poets of the Indian subcontinent who has mentioned some of the customs in his lyric poems. The high frequency of these elements has caused the present article to address this issue, and while introducing a poet whose poems commemorate Hafez and are less known in Iran, that is, Azad Belgrami, studied the crystallized customs in his lyric poems. In this way, tries to get acquainted with the type of common traditions in India and answer the question that: In Belgrami’s lyric Are the cultural customs and traditions specific to the people of India? Or is it influenced by Islamic or Iranian culture?
The main purpose of the present study is to examine, understand and receive customs as an important part of popular culture among the people of India mentioned in Belgrami's poetry. The need for this type of research can be traced back to the possibility of recognizing cultural ties between nations.
The research method is descriptive-analytical and based on library resources. In this way, the authors, while introducing the Persian poet, Azad Belgrami, have studied the rituals reflected in his lyrics. The frequency of this issue in Belgrami's poetry on the one hand signifies his environment on the customs and different lifestyles of his time, and on the other hand, shows her great attention to cultural traditions, especially Islamic and sometimes Iranian traditions. Excerpts and examples were extracted based on a specific classification in the topic of rituals (covering, burial, mourning, socializing, eating, and jubilation, makeup and celebrations, and national and religious festivities) and have been placed, under the specified categories. And the final section is devoted to analyzing information and determining the subscriptions
"Hassan-al-Hind", Mir Gholam Ali Azad Belgrami (11-1006 AH), is one of the famous twelfth-century poets of India. In his time in Persian Biography writing, he was unparalleled, he was unique in poetry and prose writing in Arabic, and he eulogized the prophet in his Arabic ballads poems with such eloquence and rhetoric which he was called "Hassan-al-Hind (Abbas, 2014: 30)
The Azad provenance is Belgram, the famous and crowd’s town in the current Uttar Pradesh state of India (India: 33). With a little contemplation on the poems of Belgrami, one can see the traces of Hafez's lyric poems, such that after reading his lyrics it is thought that Belgrami was educated in Hafez school.
collaborating with customs and traditions, in addition to behavior, has created valuable images and themes with cultural support in poet’s minds and languages, in such a way that fewer divan and works can be found that have been removed from the influence of these cultural elements, and have not been used as a basis for new meanings and concepts. Belgrami's lyric poems are no exception to this rule. And the mention of customs in his love poems, in addition to showing his mastery of cultural topics and traditions, has become in many ways a tool for creating beautiful images.
The study shows that the customs mentioned in Belgrami's lyric poems can be categorized into three general categories: First, the customs that are indigenous to the people of India, such as the use of the Hindu mole, the burning of the dead body, and the chewing of the pan, which have little frequency in his poems. Second, Islamic traditions that have a high frequency, such as social etiquette, mourning rituals and dead burials, etc. And the third group of Iranian and Hindu common traditions, rituals such as Nowruz and Yelda night, which is the result of the coexistence of Iranians and Indians in the distant past.
Among the folk elements in Belgrami's lyric poems, rituals such as clothing, hospitality, socializing, and mourning have the most Abundance. In other words, the highest frequency is related to the cases in which the poet is influenced by Islamic and Iranian culture, And vice versa,
Celebrations and festivals are the least common among the customs, and except the Feast of Sacrifice and Ramadan - which is the celebration of Indian Muslims, and the celebration of Nowruz and Yalda, there is no mention of anything else in Belgrami's poetry. And according to The cheerful and lively culture of the Indian people, their interest with celebration, and on the other hand having the large number of celebrations on their calendar, this amount of mention is very small and insignificant, and it seems Belgrami's religious interests and his attention to religious traditions, have distracted him from paying more attention to Indian national customs.
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