ملکالشعرای بهار و جِیآر ملا از پیشروان فکری و شاعران آزادیخواه ایران و بلوچستان پاکستان هستند که با ابزار شعر به مبارزه پرداختهاند. با وجود تفاوت زیستی و جغرافیایی دو شاعر، پژوهش حاضر به روش تطبیقی میکوشد تا دیدگاههای مشترک این دو شاعر را در مضامین پایداری مقایسه کند. بهار از برجستهترین شاعران مشروطه در ایران و جِیآر ملا از شاعران بلندپایۀ عصر بیداری شعر بلوچی است. هر دو شاعر برآنند که اشعارشان آیینۀ رنجهای مردمی باشد که از ستمهای حکومتهای خودکامه و خفقان و شرایط سیاسی اجتماعی به ستوه آمدهاند. پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است که آیا در بازنمود مفاهیم پایداری در شعر این دو شاعر میتوان شباهتهایی یافت؟ بنا بر نتایج پژوهش، بنمایههای شعری مشترکِ عشق به وطن، امید به آینده، نوید پیروزی، دعوت به مبارزه و ایستادگی در برابر ستم و ستایش آزادی در شعر هر دو شاعر تکرار شدهاند. چنین پژوهشهایی میتوانند زمینۀ مناسبی درجهت توسعه و گسترش روابط و تعاملات فرهنگی فراهم کنند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Comparative Analysis of the Themes of Sustainability in the Poetry of the malekoshoara Bahar and G.R Mulla
Malekoshoara Bahar and G R Mulla are among the pioneers and freedom-loving poets of Iran and Pakistan, who have used poetry to fight. Despite the biological and geographical differences between the two poets, the present study tries to compare the common views and points of view of these two poets in the themes of sustainability. Bahar is one of the most prominent poets of constitutional literature in Iran and G R Mulla is one of the high-ranking poets of the Awakening era of Baluchi poetry. Both poets believe that their poems are a mirror of the sufferings of the people who have suffered from the oppression of authoritarian and oppressive governments and socio-political conditions. The main question of the research is whether similarities can be found in representing the concepts of sustainability in the poetry of these two poets? According to the results of the research, the common poetic themes of love for the homeland, hope for the future, promise of victory, invitation to fight and stand against oppression and praise of freedom have been repeated in the poetry of both poets. Such researches can provide a suitable ground for the development and expansion of intercultural relations and interactions.
Comparative literature is one of the most important branches of literary criticism. In the new world, one of the ways to understand the position, weight and position of national literature of languages is to measure it in the scales of comparative literature. Based on this necessity, Ferdinand Bruntiyer says: "We will never know ourselves, if we are satisfied only with knowing ourselves" (Anoushirvani, 1389: 35) Because "no nation can remain stable not only without communication with other nations, but even the protection of ethnic, national and religious identities can be evaluated in the context of active communication" Amin Amqaddasi, 1386: 7). According to such an attitude, the important role and position of comparative literature is understandable. Assessing and analyzing the thoughts of two poets despite spatial distances and linguistic differences can also be evaluated through comparative studies. The researcher "in this method, compares the poet and writer of one country with the poet and writer of another country and obtains common results from an in-depth study of the situation, works and thoughts" (Ishrat and Omar, 2002: 940). And it is in this position that theorists and critics refer to textual relations, a relation that studies texts in relation to other texts, which was apparently first proposed by Viktor Sheklovsky. And yet it was first discussed in Russian formalists, meaning that past texts relate to present-day texts and present-day texts relate to texts to be written in the future, especially if its type and subject matter is common” (Shamisa, 1367: 419). The fundamental question of the research is whether similarities can be found in representing the concepts of sustainability in the poetry of the malekoshoara Poets and GR Mulla?
This research is basic research, the data are collected in the form of receipts through note-taking by library studies and after a coherent analysis and classification in the present study presented. In this article, the authors first take notes by studying a library of materials and then, based on the American school of comparative literature, examine and compile the materials in a comparative-descriptive manner. In the American school, unlike the French school, they do not influence the works and the owners of the works. This school "came into being after the Second World War and began its work with a tolerance for the French school. And did not consider the principle of influence and effectiveness as a necessary condition in comparative research, but considered the comparison between different literatures based on similarity, within the field of comparative literature. "(Fareghishad, 1391: 6). In this research, the principles and effects of sustainability literature in the poetry of GR Mulla and Malekoshoara Poets have been discussed and poetic evidence has been presented. In the parts of the research that present the poetic evidences of GR Mullah in Baluchi language, in order to avoid punctuation, only the special Baluchi consonants and vowels are written in the font of this language and other letters in the same Persian form.
Homeland: One of the most prominent central themes and fields of thought in the poems of GR Mulla and Mohammad Taghi Bahar is home country and the praise of the homeland. Both lamenters speak of the pain of the homeland and have spread a sense of patriotism among the people with their poems. Based on their poems, it can be said that their love and fascination for their homeland was heartfelt and conscious.
Fighting colonialism: The poets of the resistance have always been annoyed by the presence of colonial elements in their country and have used the weapon of language in their struggle against them and have condemned and ridiculed them with their tongues. Both Bahar and Giovanni, without being conservative and considering political and security considerations, have openly and explicitly condemned foreign colonialists and domestic tyrants and revealed their sinister goals to everyone until the head of their oppression is completely disintegrated.
Criticism of incompetent rulers: One of the most central themes of the poems of Malekoshoara and GR Mulla is the critique of the carelessness and incompetence of the rulers who cause the destruction and ruin of society. In his poems, Bahar explicitly criticizes and attacks Ahmad Shah Qajar. GR Mulla also criticizes the Balochistan lord-servant society and monarchical system and complains about the tyranny of the Pakistani government, in which wealthy aristocrats can rely on any power.
Freedom of expression: The two poets agree that the existence of political repression is the cause of the loss of any freedom of expression and causes the suppression of intellectuals. Because authoritarian governments do not tolerate the emergence and presence of intellectuals in any way, because the mission of stability and freedom-seeking against oppression has always been on their shoulders, and a government that does not believe in itself will definitely speak out against freedom stand up. However, not only do they not give up the fight against tyranny, but they also work to protest the repression of intellectuals and freedom of expression.
Proud of the past: Given that Mohammad Taghi Bahar and GR Mulla are proud of their identity and authenticity, they are not unaware of the past history of their homeland and its manifestation can be found in their poems, because ignorance of history and proud past, it causes living in humiliation and forgetfulness of identity and existence.
A comparative study and analysis of the themes of stability of the poetry of the Malekoshoara Poets and GR Mulla represent many common images and descriptions in the thoughts, poems and works of these two prominent poets of sustainability literature and express their special and prominent position in this area of literature. The poems of the two poets are in themes such as freedom-seeking, struggle against domestic tyranny and foreign colonialism, reformist ideas and anti-oppression thoughts, and they also have great artistic strength of word and creativity. Both have spoken of the influence of the aliens and their sinister aims, and have ridiculed and threatened them. Both poets have a special sense of patriotism and are proud of their common and brilliant history. Homeland in the meaning of glorious ancient Iran is reflected in the poetry of both. GR Mulla considers Baloch thought and culture as a part of the culture of the great Iran and, like Malekoshoara poets, is proud of Iran's historical honors and inspires the national zeal of its people. One of the valuable findings of this study is to highlight the commonalities of Baluch identity in thought and culture with other Iranian ethnic groups. As poets of thought, Bahar and Giovanni are in fact fighters who, with the weapons of art and pen, fight social unrest without fear for justice and freedom. According to them, ignorance, poverty and tyranny of the society are due to the cruelty of the rulers and the heads of the government. Hence, they have not always stood up for the eradication of oppression and have been the guide of society towards consciousness by "writing or stepping". Symbols of stability in the poetry of both poets are similar; They are proud of their past history, national and patriotic myths are evident in their poems, their poems express the desires, ideals, pains and sufferings of their people, expressing the liberation of man from bondage and domination and reflect the popular tendency, Commitment and responsibility is a return to self and self-confidence. One of the prominent themes of stability in the poetry of the two poets is protest. Bahar and Giovanni deal with the pathology of the behaviors of the people and the officials and seek to correct the ugliness and motivate the people to participate in constructive affairs. To this end, they have used the language of poetry as a weapon of protest and criticism to attack injustices and disorders, and to criticize socially and politically.
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