نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری، دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

امروزه استقبال از صنایع دستی بومی در نزد جوامع نشان می دهد که سودآوری و تعامل موثر کالا و خدمات با مشتری در گرو برقراری ارتباطی است که از محتوای مفهوم دار فرم و بهره گیری از متریال بومی ایجاد می گردد. پژوهش پیش رو در نظر دارد تا با بررسی نقش موثر هنرهای دستی بومی هند در ایجاد الگوهای ماندگار، از قابلیت پایداری آن در جهت بهره گیری در فرآیند طراحی محصولات امروزی استفاده نماید. سوال اصلی طرح شده در مقاله عبارت است از اینکه: الگوهای شکل گیری و تولید بافته های سنتی هند چه سهمی در انطباق بر اصول طراحی پایدار داشته است؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و از نمونه های موردی جهت نتیجه گیری و تسری آن به نمونه های مشابه در صنعت استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که احیای فرآیند طراحی و تولید بافته های سنتی، در بازتولید محصولات عصر حاضر کاربرد داشته و در طراحی پایدار محصولات مدرن امروزی موثر واقع گشته است. از طرفی این محصولات از سوی مشتری نیز مورد قبول قرار گرفته و در نتیجه برای صاحبان صنعت توانسته سودآوری لازم را کسب نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Indigenous Handicrafts in explaining the Design of Sustainable Industrial goods: A case study on Traditional Indian Handloom Fabrics

نویسنده [English]

  • Forough Amoian

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Mazandaran University

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Today, the widespread use ofindigenous handicrafts incommunities shows that the profitability and effective interaction of goods and services with the customer depend on the establishment of a relationshipas a conceptualized content of form and the use of indigenous materials. The present study intends to use the sustainability of the Indian handlooms in the design process of modern products by examining the role of indigenous Indian handloomsin creating sustainable patterns. The main research question is about the role of the formation and production patterns of Indian traditional handlooms in the principles of sustainable design. The research method in this research is descriptive-analytic and case studies are used to make conclusions and generalizethe results to similar samples in the industry. The results of this study show that the revival of the design and production process oftraditional handloomshas been used to reproduce the products of the present day and has been effective in the sustainable design of modern products. Moreover, these products have been accepted by the customer and as a result, have been able to provideadvantagesfor the industry owners.
Keywords: Sustainability, Industrial design, Traditional design, Indian handlooms
 

Introduction

Today, the widespread use of indigenous handicrafts in communities shows that the profitability and effective interaction of goods and services with the customer depend on the establishment of a relationship as a conceptualized content of form and the use of indigenous materials. The present study intends to use the sustainability of the Indian handlooms in the design process of modern products by examining the role of indigenous Indian handloomsin creating sustainable patterns. The main research question is about the role of the formation and production patterns of Indian traditional handlooms in the principles of sustainable design. The research method in this research is descriptive-analytic and case studies are used to make conclusions and generalizethe results to similar samples in the industry. The results of this study show that the revival of the design and production process oftraditional handloomshas been used to reproduce the products of the present day and has been effective in the sustainable design of modern products. Moreover, these products have been accepted by the customer and as a result, have been able to provideadvantagesfor the industry owners.

Research Methodology

The research methodology in this study is based on the analysis of design process data in the field of industrial design with a sustainable design approach. These data, in line with the findings of indigenous art from the study of Indian Handloom Fabrics, attemptto determine the formation andretention of the studied samples. The Handloom Fabrics were collected from library documents investigatedas documented reports with illustrated details in other studies. Below, a few sample products produced with a sustainable approach and indigenous art formatting methodology are described and compared to the defined indicators in sustainable design to answer the research question.

Discussion

In this study, the consequence of the modern use of indigenous Indian handcrafts which arise from aspirations and conform to the cultural standards of the masses and has a sense of familiarity with their aesthetic instincts. It is the use of all their phenomenological, symbolic and formal abilities which are designed and considered flexibly in two-dimensional and three-dimensional situations. A handcraft has clear dimensions that make direct and immediate contact with its audience. It can also be converted into three-dimensional forms in the designer's hands. In using indigenous themes and symbols, the final form of the collection is understood from the unity of the components. The form can be round, elongated, symmetrical, scattered or radial. Abstraction and geometry of these forms are illustrated in the form of modern themes and used in the product body or as an incorporating part of the symbolic form. This is one of the solutions for applying symbols in volume. On the other hand, a part of the shape and lines of the main form of the design can be applied to respond to the technical and ergonomic aspects of the product and give artistic and familiar color to the technical departments. Industrial products that are designed through a conscious and informed process and an analysis of the social, technical, ergonomics, economic, and aesthetic aspects cannot be summarized in a single form with a specific function. However, what is addressed today in sustainable design and interaction design is behavior design rather than system or object design. Therefore, it is possible to declare in the use of native symbols that have their own valuable content to the native audience that the conceptual content of these symbols is not only applicable to the construction of creative forms,but also to the creation of enjoyable and memorable motivational action for the audience.

Conclusion

The type of traditional textile is determined under the influence of culture, customs, and social and economic conditions of the ruling community and consumer class. Palas Bafi (Saking) has been done not only in Eastern and Asian communities, but also in African and other parts of the world with a more or less similar pattern; it is now a home art and a small business in the villages. Since this art has emerged at the specific conditions of economic weakness, variations in textile, color and thickness and overall objective appearance have received much attention and favor in today's life. In sustainable design, it is tried to design and produce products with minimal waste, trash accumulation and force on nature.The use of natural raw materials that exerted pressure or harm on nature, as well as the use of chemicals in the textiles in the studies conducted gave way to novel designs in the use of recycled fibers. Recycled fibers in particular provide a real alternative to sustainable textile design.Recycled fibersare made fromPalascombined with pieces of different fabrics and natural fibers together to enhance durability, sustainability and flexibility and provide suitable conditions. This combination can take many forms and quantities over time and produce more diverse products. The results of this type of design show that if the product is somehow familiar to customer and involve the user in the use and layout of the products after purchase through sensation and excitement, production and sales productivity will be successful. This approach considers the role of abstract and postmodern concepts and the modern world products, and perhaps the audience as the mass does not have the power to perceive this pure abstraction due to being unfamiliar with the relevant codes. However, the use of native symbols that reminds the audience of a familiar background and experience, deals with his memories and emotions and interacts properly with the audience in the traditional art has the ability and flexibility to create innovative, yet familiar forms. For this reason, the properties and valorization of native symbols, both in the symbolic and functional dimensions, can be the focus of attention and execution of designers in different communities including Iran.

References


R. Rhetoric, Humanism and Design, Discovering Design. Chicago:The University of chicago Press. 1995.
Jun-ki. A Quest for Sustainable Product Design: A Systematic Methodology for Integrated Assessment of Environmentally Benign and Economically Feasible Product Design, VDM Verlag. 2009.
A. A Study of The Paisley Motif and Development of a Template for The Motif. London: National Institude of Fashion Technology. 2015.
C. Harlow. M. Strand. A. and Bjerregard. L. Traditional Textile Craft-an Intangible Cultural Heritage. Copenhagen: Centre for Textile Research. university of Copenhagen. 2016.
P. Schoormans. J. Product Personality and its Influence on Consumer Preference. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 22. pp 189-197. June. 2005.
L. and Redstorm. J. Interaction Design Fundation, Experiments. Geneva: The Textile Research Centre. The Swedish School of Textile. 2006.
P. Design Aesthetics: Principles of pleasure in design. Psychology Science. Vol.48. No. 2. Pp 157-172. 2006.
H. Promoting Sustainable Indian Textiles: Final Report to The Development for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). London. UK: ual. University of Arts London. 2010.
Bill. Mary. Mellor and Geoff. O’Brien. Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches. Sustainable Development. Vol. 13. No. 1. Pp 38-52. Feb. 2005.
Ismael Gholaam. Nemat. Middle East Arts in Islamic Periods. Translate by Abbas-ali Tafazzoli. Mashhad: Beh-nashr. 2007.
H. Handmade Tales: Sustainable Fashion Through Craft Connections. New Zeland: Massey University. 2016.
P. and Khatwani. P. A. Indian Textiles: Its Sustainability and Global Sourcing. International Journal of Recent Innovation in Engineering and Research. Vol 02. No. 07. Pp 29-38. Jul. 2017.
M. and Roy. T. Handmade in India: Traditional Craft Skills in a Changing World. 2004.
M. Designing by Nature: using Universal Forms and principles in Design. USA: New Readers. 2011.
D. Green Design: Design for the Environment. London: Laurence King. 1997.
P. Person. O. Shaping the face of environmentally sustainable products: image boards and early consumer involvement in ship interior design. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 75. Pp 86-95. 2014.
Seyyed Hosain. Human and Nature. Translate by Abd-al-rahim Govaahi. Tehran: Daftar-e Nashr Farhang-e Islami. 2000.
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ . Religion and the order of nature. Translate by Ensha-allah Rahmati. Tehran: Nashr-e Ney. 2007.
K.V. Traditional Handlooms of India: The Role of Designer into Market Opportunity Recognition in The Globalization Era. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management & Technology. Vol. 4. No. 4. Pp 18-21. dec. 2015.
Farzaan. Applied semiotics. Tehran: Elm Press. 2008.
Mohammad Mahdi. Indian subcontinent (culture, archeology, anthropology, art and architecture). Tehran: Majma-e Zakhaer-e Islami. 2015.
K.T. and Eppiger. S. D. Product Design and Development. Boston. U.S.A: McGraw- Hill Higher Education. 2000.
maharamshellchairproject.com/chair.html (Visited on 15 Sep. 2018)

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainability
  • Industrial design
  • Traditional design
  • Indian handlooms
  1. اسماعیل‌غلام، نعمت، هنرهای خاورمیانه در دوران اسلامی، ترجمۀ دکتر عباسعلی تفضلی، چاپ دوم، مشهد: به نشر، 1386.
  2. توسلی، محمدمهدی، سیمای شبه‌قاره هند (فرهنگ، باستان‌شناسی، انسان‌شناسی، هنر و معماری)، تهران: مجمع ذخائر اسلامی، 1394.
  3. سجودی، فرزان، نشانه‌شناسی کاربردی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر علم، 1387.
  4. نصر، سید حسین، انسان طبیعت، ترجمۀ عبدالرحیم گواهی، تهران: دفتر نشر فرهنگ اسلامی، 1379.
  5. نصر، سید حسین، دین و نظم طبیعت، ترجمۀ إن‌شاءاله رحمتی، تهران: نشر نی، 1386.
  6. Buchanan, R., Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. In Buchanan R, & Margolin V, (eds.). The Idea of Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. 1995.
  7. Choi, J.K., A framework for the integration of environmental and business aspects toward sustainable product development, Journal of Engineering Design 19(5):431-446, 2008. DOI: 10.1080/09544820701749116.
  8. Choudhary, A., A Study of the Paisley Motif and Development of a Template for the Motif, India: National Institute of Fashion Technology Mumbai, 2015.
  9. Ebert, C., Harlow, M. Strand, A. and Bjerregard, L., Traditional Textile Craft-an Intangible Cultural Heritage, Copenhagen: Centre for Textile Research, university of Copenhagen, 2016.
  10. Govers, P., Schoormans, J., Product Personality and its Influence on Consumer Preference, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22, 189-197, june, 2005.
  11. Hallnas, L. and Redstorm, J., Interaction Design Fundation , Experiments ,Geneva: The Textile Research Centre , The Swedish School of Textile, 2006.
  12. Hekkert, P., Design Aesthetics: Principles of pleasure in design. Psychology Science, Vol.48, No. 2, 157-172, 2006.
  13. Higginson, H., Promoting Sustainable Indian Textiles: Final Report to The Development for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London, UK: ual, University of Arts London, 2010.
  14. Hopwood, Bill, Mary, Mellor and Geoff, O’Brien, Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches, Sustainable Development, Volume 13, Issue 1, 38-52, UK: Feb.2005.
  15. Kapur, H., Handmade Tales: Sustainable Fashion Through Craft Connections, New Zeland: Massey University, 2016.
  16. Khawani, P. and Khatwani, P. A., Indian Textiles: Its Sustainability and Global Sourcing, International Journal of Recent Innovation in Engineering and Research, Volume 02, Issue 07, 29-38, July 2017.
  17. Liebl, M. and Roy, T., Handmade in India: Traditional Craft Skills in a Changing World, The World Bank and Oxford University Press, Washington DC, USA, pp. 53-73. ISBN 9780821354876,2004.
  18. Mackenzie, D., Green Design: Design for the Environment, London: Laurence King, 1997.
  19. Macnab, M., Designing by Nature: using Universal Forms and principles in Design, USA: New Readers, 2011.
  20. Morto, P., Person, O., Shaping the face of environmentally sustainable products: image boards and early consumer involvement in ship interior design, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 75, 86-95, 2014.
  21. Rakhin K.V., Traditional Handlooms of India: The Role of Designer into Market Opportunity Recognition in The Globalization Era, International Journal of Emerging Research in Management & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 4, 18-21, dec. 2015.
  22. Ulrich, K.T. and Eppiger, S. D., Product Design and Development, Boston, U.S.A: McGraw- Hill Higher Education, 2000.
  23. https://www.maharamshellchairproject.com/chair.html