نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران (نویسنده‌مسئول)

3 استاد فرهنگ‌‌ و زبان‌‌های باستانی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

قربانی، نوعی پیشکش آیینی و یکی از جلوه‌‌های پرستش است که در ادواری، از مقاصد بنیادینِ خود منحرف شد؛ تا‌جایی‌‌‌که انسان‌ها، هم‌‌نوعان‌‌ خود را قربانی می‌‌کردند. سه تمدنِ هند، ایران و بین‌‌النهرین، از دیرباز مناسبات فرهنگی فراوانی داشته‌‌ و از یک‌دیگر تأثیراتی پذیرفته‌‌اند که یکی از این موارد، قربانی انسان است. این پژوهش می‌‌کوشد به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با توجه به نظریه‌‌های آیین قربانی، به ‌‌بررسی قربانی انسان در این سه فرهنگ‌‌ بپردازد و به این پرسش‌‌ها پاسخ دهد که در تمدن‌‌های یادشده، قربانی انسان در چه مواقعی انجام می‌‌شد و در صورت تأثیرپذیری، این تأثیرپذیری‌‌ها به چه شیوه‌‌هایی نمودار شده‌است. یافته‌‌های پژوهش نشان می‌‌دهد قربانی انسان، اغلب در مراسم خاص مذهبی و در مواقع حساس به‌‌‌منظور حاصل‌خیزی طبیعت و بلاگردانی انجام می‌‌گرفت. سه تمدن‌‌ یادشده در آیین‌‌های گذر از آتش و امتیازات قربانی‌‌های جایگزین، ازجمله: زوگانس، میرنوروزی و آزادی انسان قربانی، برای مدت کوتاهی از یک‌دیگر تأثیر پذیرفته‌‌اند. در تحلیل‌‌های انجام‌شده نیز در بخش‌‌های حاصلخیزی، نظریه‌‌های فریزر و تایلور؛ در بخش‌‌ قربانی برای بُت، نظریه‌‌های تایلور و بویس؛ در بخش بلاگردانی از شاه، نظریۀ پادشاه الوهی فریزر در بخش غرق‌کردن، نظریه‌‌های تایلور و بویس کاربردِ بیشتری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study and Analysis of Human Sacrifice in India, Iran, and Mesopotamia Based on Sacrifice Theories

نویسندگان [English]

  • ayoob omidi 1
  • maryam mosharraf 2
  • abolghasem esmailpour 3

1 PhD student of Persian language and literature of Shahid Beheshti University

2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Humanities, of Shahid Beheshti (Corresponding Author)

3 Professor of Ancient languages, Faculty of Humanities, Shahid Beheshti University

چکیده [English]


 

Extended Abstract
The sacrifice is a form of ritual sacrifice and one of the forms of worship that have deviated from their fundamental purposes at times until individuals have sacrificed themselves. The three civilizations of India, Iran, and Mesopotamia have long had many cultural ties and have been influenced by each other; one of these is human sacrifice. This paper tries to study the human sacrifice in these three cultures in a descriptive-analytical way and according to the theories of the ritual of sacrifice. And to answer the questions of when human sacrifice was performed in the mentioned civilizations and if so, in what ways has this effect been shown? The findings show that human sacrifice was often performed in special religious ceremonies and on sensitive occasions in order to reproduce nature and restore it. In Mesopotamia and India, due to the vastness and cultural differences of the region, human sacrifice was more common. The three civilizations mentioned in the rituals of passing through fire have influenced the privileges of alternative sacrifices and the exile of mythical characters (to the underworld). In the analyzes performed in the fertility sections, Fraser and Taylor's theories; the sacrifice for the idol, Taylor and Boyce's theories; Burning and symbolic sacrifices, freezer theories, and Taylor are more commonly used.
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Introduction

One of the oldest and most widespread rituals, which had a special qualitative value for human beings and with its implementation, human beings tried to connect with natural forces, is the ritual of sacrifice. The purpose of sacrifice is to control religion over the world, and by performing this ritual, one tries to make a special impact on the world (Mogk, 1909: p. 6). The word "qurban" in Arabic is derived from "qarb" meaning closeness and indicates that in all the sacrifices, seeking nearness to God or the gods or supernatural powers has been considered (AghaeeMeybodi, 1390: 118). Early man was unable to comprehend the greatness of the Creator and to understand nature, and was constantly frightened by imaginary gods, supernatural forces, death, disease, and the damage of natural disasters such as lightning, earthquakes, floods, and so on. There are ways to force these forces to work in their favor, but later it became known that those natural forces are so strong that it is impossible to capture them; rather, they must be forced to offer, and to obtain the mercy of these forces. He appealed to the blood of the victims. One of the types of these victims is the human sacrifice that was made among different ethnic groups in critical situations such as repelling natural disasters, drought, famine, etc., in order to tame the great superhuman force and make them want to fulfill their needs

Research methodology

This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method and the theoretical foundations of the research have been collected based on the resources related to the ritual of sacrifice in India, Iran and Mesopotamia and the examples found based on theories of sacrifice have been studied and analyze. This study is performed in two sections: blood sacrifice (for blood transfusion) and non-blood (non-bleeding method). In the section on blood sacrifice, items such as: sacrifice for fertility, sacrifice for Idols, sacrifices for trees and sacrifices for the purpose of turning away from the king and in the section of non-blood sacrifices: such as: drowning victims, self-immolation or burning of children and symbolic sacrifices (exile of Zahak, Nargal and Jamshid to the basement and The Passage of Fire) and a discussion of historians' analysis of human sacrifice in Iran

Discussion

Since the objective and tangible reflection of myths is related to rituals, and the transfer of many myths from one culture to another through these rituals, to get acquainted with the mythical origin of the customs of each nation, it is necessary to study and recognize this part of culture. The three cultures of India, Iran, and Mesopotamia have long been associated with each other due to coexistence and cultural commonalities (especially Iran and India) and have therefore influenced each other; one of these ritual influences has been the idea of human sacrifice, which can be seen in these three cultures in different ways. This article tries to examine this idea in India, Iran and Mesopotamia and show their influence on each other. It is worth noting that due to the importance of the ritual of sacrifice and its role in human material and spiritual life, in addition to mythological and epic texts, many writers and researchers in the fields of psychology and sociology in their works to this idea. In this regard, the authors try to refer to the sacrifice theories (the divine king of the freezer, the theory of preserving the power of nature and the pleasure of the gods from the author, the sacrifice theory). The title of a kind of offering to the gods from Taylor and the theory of victim adjustment from Max Weber, formulated a suitable theoretical basis for this discussion and its examples from Check this theory. In this article, the authors seek to answer the following questions: In which of the three cultures has human sacrifice been most prevalent? Has human sacrifice been common in Iran? In what cases have these civilizations been influenced by each other? Which theories are most useful in analyzing victim cases?

Conclusion

Sacrifice has long been considered one of the ways to communicate with the gods and the superior forces, and primitive man used it to conquer nature; this religion, after the deviations in religion, underwent a change and until it went so far that some tribes fell victim to humans. According to studies conducted in India, Mesopotamia and Iran, due to the cultural differences between Mesopotamia and India, human casualties in these cultures were more common. Regarding human casualties in Iran, it should be noted that although it should not be forgotten that most cultures may have experienced such a formality in their early life, this type of victimization exists in other cultures. It is not common in Iran, and if, according to Herodotus, there is a sign of it, given that other historians have not provided any other evidence, it is not very valid; the word "hearing" is also used. It is not correct to prove this claim. In addition, the issue of the prevalence of a religion makes it possible to attribute it to a nation, although in the civilizations of India and Mesopotamia, the various methods of human sacrifice were very common in Iran, which is the ring. It is the intermediary of two civilizations; there is no clear example of this type of sacrifice, and this shows the rich and dynamic Iranian culture. Concerning the adjustment of the victim, it is common belief that with the advancement of human civilization and culture, the human victim takes on a more formal form, and human victims are replaced by animal Sacrifices, and the further we go, the more advanced we become. Animal Sacrifices give way to non-bloody Sacrifices, but it seems, as it does today, that there are different types of blood Sacrifice, such as cows, sheep, and non-bloody Sacrifices, such as money. Gold, votive offerings, or spiritual offerings such as prayer, fasting, service to holy places are performed in parallel and according to different circumstances. In the past, the types of these offerings were considered important. The issue and the crisis were presented, although the spread of awareness and the efforts of social reformers have been very effective in moderating this. The civilizations mentioned in the stories of the passage of fire (Siavash and Sita), the privileges of alternative Sacrifice (Zugans, Mirenorozi, and the human freedom of human sacrifice for a short time in India) and the exile of mythical characters seem to have been considered. (Yameh, Zahak and Nargal) have been influenced by each other underground, the most important reasons for which are the proximity and cultural commonalities of these nations. In analyzes performed in blood sacrifices: in the fertility sections (Fraser's and Taylor's theories), the sacrifice for the idol (Taylor's and Boyce's theories), the disorientation of the king (Theory of the Divine King Fraser) and modification. Sacrifice (Weber's Theory); In Non-Blood Sacrifices: Used in Drowning (Taylor and Boyce Theories), Self-immolation and Burning (Freezer and Taylor Theories) and Symbolic Sacrifice (Theory of the Divine King Fraser) it has more



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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Religion
  • Human sacrifice
  • India
  • Iran
  • Mesopotamia
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