روششناسی تفسیر نظام القرآن و تأویل القرآن بالفرقان عبدالحمید فراهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار علوم قرآن و حدیث دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران،

2 دانشجوی دکتری تفسیر تطبیقی مؤسسۀ حوزوی رفیعه المصطفی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در حوزۀ روش‌‌شناسی تفاسیر، بازشناخت ملاک‌ها و معیارهای استفاده‌شده در هر تفسیر الزامی است تا از این رهگذر روش و منابع مورد استناد هر مفسّر در تفسیر روشن شود. نوشتار پیشِ‌رو، با روش توصیف و تحلیل محتوا و با بررسی اسنادی و کتابخانه‌ای به روش‌شناسی تفسیر نظام‌‌القرآن و تأویل القرآن بالفرقان پرداخته است.فراهی از برجسته‌‌ترین افرادی است که نظریۀ نظام قرآن را به‌عنوان روشی تازه در تفسیر قرآن پی‌ریزی کرده است. مراد وی از تناسب و نظام قرآن، تبیین یکپارچگى و وحدت محتوایى و مضمونى میان آیات و سوره‏هاى قرآن است. فراهی برای تفسیر، مطابق با دسته‌‌بندی خود از یک اصل و چند تبع بهره می‌‌برد؛ اصل، خود قرآن است که بهترین مفسّر آیات خویش است و تبع شامل مواردی همچون احادیث نبوی و اقوال صحابه، شأن نزول، استعمالات لغت نزد اعراب، لغت و ریشۀ کلمه و کتب انبیای پیشین است. روش او در تفسیر نیز ابتدا تکیه بر خود قرآن برای درک معنای حقیقی آیات و سپس تفسیر براساس هریک از تبع‌های بیان‌شده است؛ بااین‌حال او برای عقل به معنای عقل فلسفی و منطقی در تفسیر جایگاهی نمی‌‌شناسد و به‌‌طورکلی گرایشی ادبی دارد. در پژوهش حاضر روش تفسیری فراهی با تبیین هریک از موارد فوق بررسی می‌‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Methodology of Interpretation of Al-Quran System and Interpretation of Al-Quran by Balfarqan Abdolhamid Farahi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Mirahmadi 1
  • Seyyedeh Zainab Hosseini 2
1 Assistant Professor Quran and Hadith Sciences in kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 PHD student PhD student in Rfiat- al Mustafa Tehran Seminary, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
In the field of methodology of interpretation, it is imperative to recognize the criteria and criteria used in each interpretation in order to clarify the method and resources invoked by each interpreter in the interpretation. The present paper, by describing and analyzing the content, and by reviewing the documents and the library, has been devoted to the methodology of interpreting Al-Quran's system and interpreting Al-Quran Balfarqan. Farahi is one of the most prominent people who has developed the Quranic system theory as a new way of interpreting the Qur'an. His view of the proportions and system of the Qur'an is to explain the unity and unity of the content and the contents of verses and surahs of the Quran. Farah for interpretation, according to his categorization, uses one principle and several attributes: the principle of the Qur'an itself is the best interpreter of its verses, and the consequence includes such things as prophetic hadiths and the words of the Companions, the descent of desires, the use of the words to the Arabs, The word and the root of the word and the books of the past prophets. His method in the commentary also firstly relied on the Quran itself to understand the true meaning of the verses and then the interpretation based on each of the followers. However, he does not recognize reason for reason in the sense of philosophical and logical reason in the interpretation of a position, and in general he has a literary tendency in the "interpretation of the rule of law and the interpretation of al-Qur'ān Balfrqān". In this research, Farahi's interpretation method is explored by explaining each of the above.
 

Introduction

Addressing the Quranic verses alongside each other has a long history in interpretative studies. The fundamental concern of the Qur'anic scholars has always been to prove that the Holy Qur'an, with the gradual decline of over two decades, has been developed in the present manner which is available to us with wisdom and divine grace. The design of subjects such as "the order of the verses" in the early centuries, addressing "the fitting of verses and surahs alongside each other" in later centuries and theorizing in the area of "coherence and transplantation of Surahs of the Qur'an" in all new studies In order to prove the order of revelation, the verses of the Holy Qur'an are given. The efforts of the early scholars who began from the 4th century AH were more likely to prove the miracle of the Quran through the existing order of words and phrases. Addresses (338 AH), Bakhlayyat (M 403 AH) and Jorjani (May 471 AH) are the representatives of such a theory. In the Middle Ages of the Qur'anic scholars, in addition to paying attention to the issue of order, the proportion between the verses and even the surahs was a way of discovering the essential interests of the surah and the pleasures contained therein. Tabriz (548 AH), akhrrasy (606 AH), Bekha'i (M 885 AH), Zarkashi (M 794 AH) and Siouti (M 911 AH) are the most prominent proponents of the above theory.
In the fourteenth century, the Qur'an's commentaries traveled a new path by promoting a wave of reformism and scientificism and the slogan of returning to the Qur'an. Meanwhile, special attention to the discovery of surah and the unity and coherence of Quran surahs is a common thread between contemporary interpretations. As the design of issues such as context, axis, section, verse, and relevance of the verse is abundantly visible in these interpretations. Addressing the theory of "unity and coherence of the Qur'anic surahs" in all the contemporary interpretations of the Islamic world, it has support from the Indian subcontinent to Egypt, Syria and Iran. In this regard, perhaps the most serious theoretical work on the inner coherence of the Surahs and beyond can be seen about the unity of the entire Quran in the works of Farah.
Abdul Hamid (Hamid al-Din) Farahi (1280-1999) is a scholar of Jalil Al-Qarad Muslim, a Sunni commentator on contemporary scholarship and a student of Allamah Shabli Nomani. He is one of the most prominent authors of this century in the Indian Subcontinent in various sciences, who have published valuable and unpublished works and various Nafisi treatises in different languages, each of which is unimaginable in its own right. Among his works, "The Interpretation of the Al-Quran System and the Interpretation of Al-Qur'an Balfirqan" is a deep encyclopedia that is written about the interpretation and interpretation of the Holy Qur'an, its eloquence and rhetoric, its contents, and all that is related to the Quranic sciences.
1.1. Research methodology
The present study, by describing and analyzing the content and using a bibliographic and bibliographic review technique, has been applied to the methodology of interpreting Al-Quran's system and interpreting Al-Quran by Balfaraghan Abdolhamid Farahi. Through this method of research, one can find resources, expertise, particular interpretative views, and the way Farahi's argument is based.

Discussion

One of the undeniable necessities of the research process is the methodology of the methodology. This knowledge seeks to identify the appropriate methods for any research based on the method of knowledge, the type of reasoning, the subject of the research, the type of view of the subject, the method of data analysis, the level of data analysis, and the quality of utilization of resources. Therefore, the knowledge of methodology can be considered as the practical logic of research in any science and the infrastructures necessary to understand that science. Methodology has different uses. What is meant in this research is methodology, which means extraction of Farahi's method and resources in the Qur'anic interpretation process; in this way, he can derive his criteria in understanding comprehension issues.
In other words, for the sake of accurate knowledge of Farah's intellectual system, the methodology of his interpretation seems necessary.
The necessity of the methodology of the interpretations is that the public does not regard his commentators as observing a particular pattern and understands the concepts and teachings of the Quran in a nonhuman way and is equally available to the audience. Therefore, the presentation of interpretative doctrines is useful in the form of a systematic model. The outcome of the recognition of the Quran's interpretative methods, the extraction of the method and resources referenced by each interpreter, the influence of religious tendencies and the specialties and personal tastes on the Quranic interpretation

Conclusion

So far, there has not been a comprehensive and independent research on explaining Farah's vision, his interpretive method and his intellectual positions. However, in some articles during the course of addressing the theory of coherence of the Qur'an to contemporary contemporary jurisprudents, Farahi's approach is mentioned in this regard. In the articles on "The Coherence of the Qur'an; The Approach to" Reformation "in the Interpretation" (Aghayi, 2007) and "The Coherence of the Qur'an from Theory to Practice: Comparing the Farahi's Reasoning and Hawi's Interpretative Method" (Hemo, 2009). Briefly, Farahi's view on the order and the consistency of Quran is explained. In the article "Al-Mu'alm'Abd al-Hamid al-Farahi and the Faud al-Darsat al-Quraenyah", only Farahi's personality and bibliography are reserved. (Sharqawi, 2016)
In some studies, while recounting the character and works of Farahi, they briefly describe his view of the theory of order. The articles by Alamam Abdulhamid al-Farahi and Muhajfi Tafsirah, "The Al-Quran System and the Interpretation of Al-Qur'an Balfirqan" (Sharangi, 2004) and "Arawat al-Sheikh Abdul Hamid al-Farahi, in the full range of issues in the interpretation of al-Qur'an al-kerim" (Bandari Nawi, 2016) are an example of this research. In the meantime, the only work that has been compared with a relatively comprehensive approach and from a critical point of view to explaining Farah's method is the book, "Alamam Abdul Hamid al-Farahi and Jahadeh al-Tafsir and Al-Quran." (Narrator, 1436)
Despite the efforts of the abovementioned researchers, the present paper tries to analyze and explain precisely the content of Farah's interpretation, the method of confronting him with his sources and his approach to the Qur'anic and interpretive sciences.

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quranic Interpretation
  • Interpretative Method
  • Qur'anic System
  • Content Unity
  • Farahi
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