چندجانبهگرایی، فرصت جدیدی برای بازیگران سیاسی ازجمله دولتهاست که در چارچوب قواعد، مقررات و تعهدات بینالمللی بتوانند منافع خود را در فضای جهانیشدن و با بهرهگیری از تعامل با سایر کشورها بهدست آورند. البته در این میان، خطرات و چالشهایی نیز پیشِروی بازیگران مزبور قرار دارد. یکی از این بازیگران مهم، هند است. در همین راستا، پژوهش حاضر به بررسی چندجانبهگرایی؛ چالشها و فرصتهای پیشِروی سیاست خارجی هند در تعامل با حقوق بینالملل میپردازد. سؤال اساسی پژوهش حاضر این بوده است که چندجانبهگرایی در عصر حاضر، چه فرصتها و چالشهایی را پیشِروی سیاست خارجی هند قرار داده است؛ بنابراین نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی که دادههای آن بهصورت کتابخانهای جمعآوری شده است، به این نتیجه میرسد که (فرضیه) تداوم هژمونیگرایی توسط قدرتهای بزرگ به همراه خطر افراطیگری در شبهقاره هند بهعنوان چالشها و گسترش منطقهگرایی در نقاط مختلف جهان بهعنوان فرصتهای سیاست خارجی هند بهشمار میروند که همسویی بالایی با قواعد حقوق بینالملل دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Multilateralism; Indian Foreign Policy’s Challenges and Opportunities Interacting with International Law
Globalization and the resulting conditions have brought about vast changes in foreign policy of countries all around the world. This has been particularly influential among emerging powers and their foreign policy behavior. It can be said that the communication revolution in the 1980s as well as the collapse of the bipolar system due to the breakup of one-party communist state of Soviet Union along with the expansion of non-governmental organizations and institutions caused emerging countries to pursue various fields in order to achieve their national interests. One of these powers is India, which can play an important role in the international and regional structure due to its special position in both the Indian subcontinent and Asia. Because of its influential political and historical background at global level, India has always been considered as an important actor in regional and international developments and transformations (Mohan, 2006: 2).
Political and economic conditions as well as changes that occur due to globalization have made multilateralism one of the pillars of India''s novel foreign policy. Meanwhile, the role of neighboring powers such as China and Pakistan as well as superpowers such as the United States and Russia is outstanding. In this regard, present study addresses multilateral challenges and opportunities in Indian foreign policy. In addition, this paper focuses on the extent of alignment and non-alignment of Indian foreign policy from the perspective of international law.
This article uses a descriptive-analytical approach, relies on data, desk and documentary sources, and reviews the latest studies to examine multilateralism and challenges and opportunities of Indian foreign policy from the perspective of international law.
There are important approaches to international relations and every single approach represents a particular perspective on international relations. One of the most important approaches is realism. For realists, regional cooperation is also sought to avoid being eliminated by powerful rivals and hostile actors (Mearshmer, 2010: 161)
According to constructivists, convergence takes place through procedures and intersubjective cognition among actors, and therefore it should be said that these interactions lead to the formation of convergent and cooperative behavior among governments, and they even lead to the establishment of a common identity among governments on a larger scale (Koolaei and Sazmand, 2011: 135).
Proponents of collective security, such as Barry Buzan, also believe that maintaining and enhancing collective security is a multilateral factor in international relations (Buzan, 2000: 10-11).
Type of orientation each country adopts in external environment can affect strategic and macro interests of other countries in the form of opportunities and constraints (Taheri and Bayat, 2018: 191). During the Cold War, India established a kind of leadership among countries of the world called non-alignment (Sharma and Miklian, 2016: 2). Collapse of the Soviet Union and elimination of one of the power blocs in international politics and, consequently, establishment of hegemonic power of USA and Western capitalism over most parts of the world changed India''s socialist policies and new developments began in India''s foreign policy following collapse of the Soviet Union. Entering the 21st century, India, along with China and other countries with high economic growth, has a double power to influence international and regional levels (Malone and Mukherjee, 2010: 150). Therefore, today India tends to the multilateralism policy and plays an important role in the developments and transformations happening in the Indian subcontinent, Asia, Africa and the international system in general due to its geopolitical and geostrategic location in the Indian subcontinent and its access to Indian Ocean, large population, numerous man labor, different cultures and religions, as well as efforts to play a role at international and regional levels.
One of the important signs of India''s foreign policy is the tendency towards superpowers, including the United States and cooperation with NATO (Gholami et al., 2020: 147). The rationale behind these new tendencies is that India encounters many challenges and opportunities due to its strategic geographical location. This country should minimize the threats posed by its neighbors (i.e. Pakistan and China) and at the same time benefit from the support of the United States at regional and international levels (Khokhar, 2018: 18).
On the other hand, cooperation between China and India, that are the most populous countries in the world located in sensitive regions, can be considered as an economic threat to the great European powers and the United States. For this reason, Western powers do not favor the development of China and India (Venkat Raman, 2018: 348).
Although India and China face opportunities, they also encounter threats from the other side under the principle of multilateralism. Chinese support for Pakistan, for example, has become a major source of concern for Indians (Uddin Gojree, 2014: 56). India has great ambitions. Thus, the two countries can create a balanced order at international level by making changes in the structure of the international system and establishing a common approach considering their goals (Venkat Raman, 2018: 352).
If international law is considered as a set of principles accepted by nations and governments at international level, then certain principles and norms prevail this level. The most important principles and norms are adherence of countries to international rules, commitments and norms and countering international threats such as terrorism. Due to its non-alignment policy, India has long been one of the countries recognized international law. Moreover, the names of Indian leaders such as Gandhi and Nehru are recognized as defenders of morality in international politics. India has undertaken extensive activities in line with this approach. India continues to see itself as a major supporter and proponent of shared global values, including human rights and democracy worldwide (Annual Report 2016-2017, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, xvi).
India has vast potential for multilateralism. India''s novel foreign policy is based on interaction with neighboring powers as well as major powers. Thus, given the global conditions resulted from the collapse of the post-Cold War bipolar system, India''s ideological non-aligned foreign policy has been replaced by a pragmatic and multilateral foreign policy that manifests itself in its relations with its neighbors, including China and Pakistan as well as its tendency towards great powers, including the United States and Japan. In any case, it can be said that India has adopted a new approach by reforming and amending the structure of its foreign policy and overcoming its previous ideological and nationalist commitments as well as its non-alignment. India has clearly distancing itself from the old Third World standards that were ruling its domestic and foreign policies. The present study concludes that third world countries should focus on the role India plays at global level when establishing relationship with India. Their relationship with India should also go beyond the ideological goals of the third world. Thus, with its tendency towards regional and global multilateralism, India can be the big voice of developing nations that should pursue a multilateral policy by freeing themselves from unilateral development.
On the other hand, an important part of India''s foreign policy in the region and the world lies in its interaction with international law. So signs of morality and observance of international norms can be seen in Indian foreign policy. Accordingly, India can both increase its power and be a voice for developing countries by tending to global powers such as the United States and Russia, as well as engaging with regional neighbors such as Pakistan.
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