از میان کشورهایی که ملزم به تبعیت از اصول و موازین دین اسلام هستند، ایران با عراق و پاکستان که همسایگان غربی و شرقی آن هستند، دارای قرابتهای فرهنگی بسیاری است. در نوشتار حاضر حق فرهنگی ملتهای مذکور مورد بررسی مقایسهای قرار گرفته است. حق فرهنگی برخلاف اهمیت فراوان و تأثیرگذاری آن بر دیگر عرصههای زندگی بشر و همعرض بودنش با سایر بخشهای حقوق بشر مانند: حقوق سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی، کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است؛ بهطوریکه علاوهبر مشخصنبودن دامنه و مصادیق دقیق آن، جزء حقوق کمترتوسعهیافته و درجه دو محسوب میشود. در این نوشتار ابتدا به روش تحلیل مقایسهای با بررسی اسناد بینالملل حقوق بشری، به مصادیق خاص حق فرهنگی پرداخته شده و سپس به این سؤال پاسخ داده شده است که جایگاه این حق در نظام حقوقی اسلام و قوانین اساسی کشورهای مورد بحث کجاست؟ یافتههای پژوهش حاضر نشان میدهد که از بررسی مجموع اسناد بینالملل حقوق بشری، مصادیق ششگانۀ حق فرهنگی، شناسایی و احصاء میشود که این مصادیق در نظام حقوقی اسلام مورد تأکید فراوان قرار گرفتهاند؛ اما با مقایسۀ قوانین اساسی ایران، عراق و پاکستان، چنین بهنظر میرسد که این قوانین در زمینۀ بیان حق فرهنگی، دارای نقاط ضعف بوده و نیازمند اصلاح، تکمیل و بازنگری هستند؛ بهطوریکه به برخی از مصادیق مانند حق بهرهمندی از هنر، در هیچکدام از قوانین مذکور اشاره نشده است و برخی دیگر با شدت و ضعف بیان شدهاند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The status of the cultural rights in the Islamic legal system and the fundamental laws of Iran،Iraq and Pakistan by looking at international documents.
Extensive Abstract :
undoubtedly،one of the most important goals of religion of islam،which is the arrival of individuals at the grade of caliph of islam(انی جاعل فی الأرض خلیفة)(بقره/30) in the shadow of this cultural right, it will be possible to promote the identity and development of individuals in society، but what is evident in practice is that the right of cultural right is neglecte، and the fundamental laws of some Islamic states that must be expressed in the cultural institutions of the society and the fundamental rights of the nation are required to correct، complete، and review the cultural right of individuals. on this basis the comparative study of the cultural right of iran،iraq and pakistan which expresses the attitude of these legal systems is cultural right and it aims to explore their strengths and weaknesses, and the aim is to explore the status of the right،in the legal system of islam and the basic rules of the dispute. so the questions we seek to answer arewhat are the examples of cultural right to be the event of the international community? 2 - What is the view of the legal system of Islam against this right? 3 - As compared to the basic rules of Iran، Iraq and Pakistan, which would have maximum impact on the religion of Islam in the field of cultural right، which required the maximum and which required completion and revision?
The present study was conducted by comparative analysis using library tools،in which، while enumerating examples of cultural rights from international human rights documents، the position of this right in the Islamic legal system was explained and the approach of the Iranian and Iraqi constitutions. Pakistan has been comparatively studied in relation to cultural rights and their commonalities and differences have been stated. International is explained in this regard.
international human rights documents, the following six cases are counted as examples of cultural rights: 1. The right to benefit from free education 2. The right to freedom of religion and belief 3. The right to use the native language 4. The right to protect cultural heritage 5. The right to enjoy all kinds of art 6. The right of maximum participation of individuals in cultural activities. The right to free education has been emphasized in the religion of Islam and is mentioned in many verses and hadiths (Tusi, 1414: 488; Kazemi،1404: 237). This right is stated in principles 3،43 and 30 of the Iranian constitution. This law mentions that education is free but does not mention that it is compulsory. Articles 37 and 38 of the Pakistani constitution state that education is compulsory, and Article 34 of the Iraqi constitution، like that of Iran and Pakistan, recognizes free education as a right for all. The right to freedom of religion and belief is clearly stated in the verse "La Akrah fi al-Din" and the jurists have claimed consensus on the right to freedom of religion and belief. (Ameli, 1413: /3 / 78) Belief is a matter of the flesh and individuals should join it with full desire. Principles 12 and 23 of the Iranian Constitution refer to the right to freedom of religion and belief،but Article 13 of this law only recognizes Zoroastrian،Jewish and Christian Iranians as religious minorities. Recognizes that such a restriction appears to be contrary to the right to freedom of religion or belief. Article 20 of the Pakistani Constitution and Article 2 of the Iraqi Constitution refer to the absolute right to freedom of religion or belief. The right to freedom of language and the use of the indigenous language has been protected by the religion of Islam،and Islamic jurists have paid special attention to it، so that in the most important stage of concluding contracts، the parties to the contract are required to express themselves in Arabic. (Shahid I، 1410: 175) Article 15 of the Constitution of Iran and Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan and Article 4 of the Constitution of Iraq،in addition to introducing the official language of the country، mention the freedom of indigenous languages.The right to protect cultural heritage has been emphasized in the form of paying attention to the heritage of the past and thinking about their fate in the religion of Islam. (Nahj al-Balaghah, 1414: 113) The jurists of Islam have also attached great importance to the preservation of cultural heritage. Shahid Thani states: If it is possible to separate the deviant cases of misleading books،it should be enough to eliminate the same deviant cases and it is not permissible to destroy other parts of that book. (Shahid Thani،1410: 3/214) Article 10 of the law The Iraqi constitution briefly mentions the right to the protection of cultural heritage, and the constitutions of Iran and Pakistan lack any wording in this regard. The right to enjoy all kinds of art has been protected by the holy shari'a in numerous verses and hadiths. (Ameli, 1409: 5/6; Qomi, 1413: 1/129) Islamic jurists have referred to the art of sculpture ،painting ،etc. Hali، 1412: 159/379; Najafi, 1404: 22/41) The constitutions of Iran، Iraq and Pakistan lack any expression in the field of the right of individuals to enjoy art، while the constitutions of most countries refer to the right to art. The right of maximum participation of individuals in the activities of society in the form of the presence of believers in mosques،propaganda and dissemination of religious teaching، etc. has been emphasized by Islam. (Hamiri, 1413: 77) Article 3 of the Iranian Constitution refers to this fundamental right of the nation The Constitution of Pakistan generally refers to the activities of individuals to regulate individual and social life, which is basically part of the dimensions of individuals' lives, participation in cultural activities of society.The Iraqi constitution on the right of individuals to participate in cultural activities lacks any expression.
The right to education is enshrined in the constitution in question،but the Iranian and Pakistani constitutions do not apply the principle of non-repetition. The Iranian and Iraqi constitutions provide for the right to free education at all levels،while the Pakistani constitution lacks such a principle. is Freedom of religion for religious minorities is enshrined in the constitution،but in the Iranian constitution, contrary to the constitutions of Pakistan and Iraq، only Zoroastrian، Jewish، and Christian Iranians are recognized as religious minorities، and it is recommended that all minorities be reviewed in the Iranian constitution.
According to Article 20 of Pakistan "s constitution، Pakistani lawmakers have the right to promote their faith،which seems that it will deflect low - level knowledge of Islam s rich convictions and cause them apostasy
The Iraqi constitution in the field of preserving cultural heritage only refers to the preservation of holy religions and religious places،and the fundamental laws of Iran and Pakistan lack expression.
despite the obligation of islam to the benefit of people from the right of art، the basic rules in this regard do not have any expression.
The right of individuals to participate in the cultural activities of society is enshrined in the constitutions of Iran and Pakistan. while the Iraqi constitution does not have any expression،it is assumed that the basic rules are to be resolved.
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