نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 استادیار دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان (نویسنده مسئول)

10.22111/JSR.2020.32714.2017

چکیده

تعزیه یا تعزیت مراسم نمایشی و آیینی شیعی است که برای گرامیداشت و سوگواری شهدای عاشورا و اظهار همدردی و همزادپنداری با اصحاب و اهل بیت امام حسین(ع) به‌کار برده می‌‌شود. نمایش تعزیه، ریشه در ادبیات اسطوره‌ای، ملی و دینی دارد و با مایه‌های روضه‌خوانی، نقالی و پرده‌خوانی همراه است. تعزیه و هنرهای اقماری آن در ایران و هند دارای شیوه‌های خاص بیانی بوده و با شرایط محلی و جغرافیایی خود انطباق یافته‌اند، ولی سرچشمۀ واحدی دارند. سؤال تحقیق این است که تعزیه در ایران و هند با چه شیوه‌های اجرایی بیان شده است ؟ با توجه به پیشینه فرهنگی دو تمدن ایران و هند، مسلمأ شیوه نمایشی تعزیه بین مسلمانان این دو کشور دارای ارتباطی تنگاتنگ بوده و متاثر از یک فرهنگ واحد دینی می باشد. هرچند که تفاوت هایی به لحاظ شیوه‌های اجرایی بین آنها دیده می‌شود. غایت برپایی این مراسم در هردو کشور احیاء و انتقال فرهنگ عاشورایی به نسل‌های بعد بوده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی انجام شده و هدف از آن شناخت اشتراکات و وحدت عقیدتی در بیان شعائر عاشورایی در قالب تعزیه بین دو تمدن بزرگ شرق است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Practice and Expressive Methods of Ta’zieh in Iran and India

نویسندگان [English]

  • ALIREZA TAHERI 1
  • habibollah kazemnejadi 2

1 Professor, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, University of Sistan and Baluchestan,

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, University of Sistan and Baluchestan

چکیده [English]

 
1- Introduction:
Tragedy Show (Ta'zieh) is a ritual that has its origin in religious traditions. This show is of an Islamic appearance but its origin is Iranian and represents a mythical and ritual heritage of Persia. The feature of this show is that it combines clarity and flexibility with universal truths and by singularization of Folk Art lifts off the border between the viewer and the actor and in this way the viewer becomes part of the show. In the cultures of Iran and India and in mythological literature, mourning ceremonies are held for commemoration of the elites and heroes and the description of some of them has been offered in poetry and prose. The current essay aims at studying the methods of holding the tragedy shows in Iran and India and its influence on the revival of Ashura themes and rituals. The research question: Which practice methods have been used for holding tragedy shows in Iran and India? The expansion of Shiism in India owes to the ceremonies of commemoration of the tragic martyrdom of Imam Hossein. Upon the arrival of Islam to India through the Newly Converted Persia (Muslim Iran), part of the rituals and ceremonies of mourning particularly the tragedy show (Taziah) and Ashura screen shows made their ways to this land.
2- Methodology:
This study has been conducted using descriptive method and in some cases the method of analysis has also been used. The data have been collected through library studies and based on the books and authentic websites.
3- Discussion:
Mourning for the tragedies of Imam Hossein and his household and companions in the event of Ashura has led to the creation of a tragedy show called Taziah. This tragedy show has its roots in various thematic fields: religion, history, literature, anthropology, psychology, sociology. However, what is reflected more in this tragedy show is its religious notion, literary method and poems, musical aspects and songs in the form of a show. In this type of popular performance, the viewer is himself an actor and persuades others to show their emotional reactions. The performance of Taziah tragedy show in every place including city or village is easily possible in a special site in every season be it winter or summer and with any number of performers. This show has its own specific tools, apparatus and methods and for its performance, time, space, nearness and distance lose their meaning. Ta'zieh as a term has a different meaning in India and it does not refer to a theatre or drama performed on the scene rather it represents a real theme, i.e. limited recreation of the tomb of Imam Hossein. This symbolic tomb is carried on the shoulders of mourners in the mourning gatherings in Moharram with various arrangements that remind the events of Karbala. Tragedy show of Ta'zieh was first arranged by Timur the Lame in India. In India, city of Lanco is the main center of mourning for Imam Hossein. This ceremony emerged during the reign of Oudh Kings. In India the performers of the mourning rituals are called “Mourner” and the performance itself is referred to as “pilgrimage”. Pilgrimage, on the one hand, is a combination of the performance of the event of the martyrdom of Imam Hossein and on the other hand, narration of the historical events, majorly religious historical events by a narrator. Today, after several years, Ta'zieh has turned to a fine art in India. These tragedy shows vary in view of their design and size and every city has its own narrative. Two types of tragedy show are used in Indian Subcontinent. One is the temporal and the other is permanent. Permanent tragedy shows are usually called “Shrine”. These shows are held in places called “Imam Bareh”, “Ta'zieh House” or “Ashura House” and people pay visit to these places. Every old great “Imam Bareh” has its own specific Shrine or Ta'zieh. Recitation of the events of Karbala is one of those ceremonies that are related to Ta'zieh and include part of its performative texts and is recited in commemoration of the Imams and their progeny. This expressive method (recitation of the tragic events of Karbala) has a close relationship with the tragic mourning of the mythological culture that has gradually made its way into the Shia mourning culture. The most important book concerning the tragedies and passions of Imam Hossein has been authored by Hossein Waez Kashefi in 1051 H. entitled “Rawzah Al Shuhada” [Commemoration of Martyrs] or “Paradise of Martyrs”. This work is a tragic description of the martyrdom of Imam Hossein in Karbala and also the passions of other Shia martyrs. This book led to the emergence of a new type of recitation of the events of Karbala. Two and half centuries later, thanks to this work, lyric poems and the texts of Ta'zieh shows were combined. Indian Shia Muslims under the influence of the method of the mourning in Iran and particularly due to their familiarity with Persian wrote beautiful poems. The ceremony of recitation of the tragedies of Imam Hossein made its way from Iran into India. These rituals were first held in Persian language. The religious scholars (clerics), merchants, artists and poets sometimes migrated from Iran to India and chose the latter as their hometown. This caused the Muslim Indians to be influenced by the culture and method of mourning of Iranians.
4- Conclusion
Taziah as one of the greatest performative ceremonies has served as an expression of the religious emotions and rituals in Iran and India. The origin of these popular mourning ceremonies in commemoration of Imam Hossein and his Household is to be traced back to the passions of the events of Ashura. Ta'zieh as a tragedy show in Iran has been held in the form of a mourning show which is a combination of artistic and literary elements including Imam Hossein show, mourning ceremony, music, song, painting and etc. this form of Ta'zieh through cultural and commercial relations and communications of the Iranian Shia immigrants in past centuries has influenced Indian Muslims and Shia in particular. The Indian Muslims have also modified these rituals and ceremonial shows and indigenized them and perform them every year. Ta'zieh in India is not just limited to ritual performance rather it also refers to small shrines carried like coffins by the mourners and its reason can be sought for in the distance of the Indians from Karbala and the Holy Shrine of Imam Hossein. These shrines along with other sacred items are kept within buildings called “Imam Bareh” which are similar to Imamzadeh in Iran. This can also be considered as a type of simulation of the shrines and holy tombs of the Imams and their progeny.     
 
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Imam Hossein
  • Ta’zieh
  • Ashura
  • Painting of Iran
  • India’s Art
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