نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد (نویسنده مسئول)

چکیده

ادبیات فارسی یکی از دوران‌های مهم تحول و شکوفایی خود را در شبه‌قاره و سرزمین هند سپری کرده است. میرجعفربیگ بینش کشمیری (وفات حدود 1100ﻫ.ق.) یکی از نام‌آورانِ ناشناختۀ دورۀ تیموریان هند است که دیوان وی تا‌به‌امروز تصحیح نشده است. اگرچه بینش متولد کشمیر بوده و سرزمین ایران را هیچ‌‌گاه به چشم ندیده است؛ اما برای درک صحیح، فهم و شناخت وی و آثارش باید محتوای فکری و اندیشگانی شعرش را واکاوی کرد؛ به‌همین‌دلیل به بررسی برخی زوایای پنهان در شعر بینش، به‌لحاظ اندیشه‌‌های نهفتۀ ایرانی پرداخته می‌شود؛ تا از این طریق موجبات شناختِ بهترِ شاعر و همچنین شناخت بیشتر فرهنگ و تاریخ ایرانی در دورۀ تیموری فراهم آید. آنچه تبیین شد، نشان از اشراف بینش، بر زبان و فرهنگ ایران‌‌زمین دارد. ذکر برخی شهرها و اماکن جغرافیایی سرزمین ایران و رسومی چون جشن‌های نوروزی و باورهای فرهنگ ایرانی و زبان و اصطلاحات رایجِ عامیانه در اشعار بینش، همه نشانگر شناخت عمیق شاعر از ایران است که موجب به تصویر درآوردن غیرمستقیم گوشه‌‌هایی از تاریخ اجتماعی و فکری زمانۀ تیموریان هند شده است. پرسش اصلی این است شاعری که تمام عمر خود را در منطقۀ کشمیر و هند سپری کرده، چرا و چگونه اندیشه‌های او تماماً ایرانی است؟روش پژوهش این مقاله به‌صورت توصیفی-‌‌تحلیلی با استناد به ابزار کتابخانه‌ای و همچنین براساس شیوۀ یادداشت‌‌برداری از منابع و آثار بینش کشمیری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Introducing Kashmiri's View (Poet of the Eleventh Century) and Reflections of Iranian Thoughts in His Poetry bstract

نویسندگان [English]

  • soheila moradgholi 1
  • Zahra Ekhtiari 2

1 PhD student, Persian language and literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Associate Professor of Persian language and literature Department in ferdowsi of university of mashhad

چکیده [English]


Introduction



 Persian literature has undergone one of the most important periods of its transformation in the Indian subcontinent and the land of India, where the number of Persian manuscripts and Manuscripts in the land of India is still close to all manuscripts in Iran. Therefore, the position of Persian language in the subcontinent, in which for centuries of Persian language has been the main, official and circular of Islamic-Iranian thought and culture is very high and valuable. Research on the Persian poets and writers of the language of the period, which has left the Valuable works in poetry and prose, is an indispensable and inevitable cause; because today, we are indebted Today's glory of Persian in the subcontinent region to those who are forgotten, and maybe a name of them, even in the history of our literature time, is not mentioned. Kashmiri's vision is one of those owners of style, whose biography and detailed research about whom have not been provided; Mir Ja'far Beyg, recognized as Binesh, is a Persian-Hindi poet in the eleventh century. His ancestors migrated from Iran to Kashmir and spent their life there. Binesh was born in that land (Routledage, Kegan Paul. 1990, pp164-165).   
   To understand each poet and work, it is necessary to examine the ideologies and thoughts of the poet, because the language is influenced by these ideas and ideologies at each level and in each age. Ideology is "a system of norms, values, beliefs, and worldviews that guide socio-political attitudes and the actions of a group, a social class, or society as a whole" (Noth, 2004). In fact, it is the   individual beliefs, which are steadily and gradually learned with respect to each period of time, override and change thinking, speech, perception and individual reasoning. Binesh Kashmiri, this Indian-Persian poet, is a from Kashmir who lives in that geography and has never seen the land of Iran, but Iranian intellectual and cultural traits is quite evident in the language and expression of his poetry; this study addresses this issue to find out why a poem who has spent his entire life in Kashmir and India, but his linguistic skills and traits are entirely Iranian? It also answers these questions, who is Binesh Kashmiri and what is his poetry style? Can we visualize an image of the poet's community by examining the text of a poet's poetry?
Binesh Kashmiri, like mirrorists, reflects the thoughts and beliefs of the Iranian people, which has engraved in his subconscious and manifested in his poetry. Therefore, the study of the intellectual content of Binesh Kashmiri   added on the findings of Iranian history, culture and civilization during the Timurid period and maybe this type of research will lead to the establishment of discrete circles of our interactions and commonalities between Iran and the land of the India subcontinent.  

Research method


 The research method in this paper is library and documentary. After reaching the existing manuscripts of the work, the writer reads the manuscripts and takes note of the points given in the text, as well as studies in the books of biography  and the history of literature, introduces the poet and examines his poetic themes. Then, reviewing the copies of the work and referring to library resources and authentic internet sites, the political, cultural and artistic ideologies of the Timurid period were examined and their reflection in Binesh poetry was examined. Since the research results from the handwriting manuscripts have been taken; therefore, where a verse is given as an instance, instead of page numbers, the number of the sheet is mentioned. It is necessary to state that the samples of the verses in the section (poetry works and introduction of the work) of the poet's generalities No. 705 of the Library of the British Museum. Hereafter, where the verse has been given as an instance, taken from the 1571 edition of the treasure trove of the easel manuscripts of the Tajik Academy of Sciences.  

Discussion


One of the important consequences of the Indian Timurid rule is the expansion of some aspects of Iranian culture and civilization in the Indian subcontinent. This was due to the fact that the great leader of this dynasty, Timur, paid special attention to the maintenance of Turkish rules and the preeminence of the Turks of Chagatai to Iranian nationals (Ajand, 1383: 825). After Timur's death, a number of his sons and grandchildren moved away from his political and cultural heritage and became an affinity for Iranian culture, art, literature and science (Razpush, 1383: 834). Babur and some of the next kings of the Indian Timurid series, including Shah Jahan and Orang Zi, were the princes who became interested in manifestations of Iranian culture and civilization. This insight and way of thinking, not only paved the way of Iranian immigrants access to the important administrative and military occupations of the Indian Timurid, but also provided some of the manifestations of Iranian culture and civilization in that land     Binesh    Kashmiri is an Indian –Persian poet who, despite the fact that he did not see the land of Iran even once, but his Persianism and Iranianism are quite evident in his poems. So that even a Hindi word has not been found in his court , and he uses the terms, combinations, and conspiracies used in his poetry, which is entirely Iranian, and is undoubtedly derived from thoughts and the ideas of an Iran friendship by  all intents and means  that have overshadowed the speeches, perceptions and individual arguments of the Kashmiri poet. Some cases have been investigated for the "You may know by the handful the whole sack"maxim in this study.         
4 – Conclusion
Binesh Kashmiri has emerged in the Hindi style of time, but his desire for Iraqi style is higher. Binesh, in addition to the poetry Diwan that includes the lyrics and Qsayd, has six mathnavis: Binesh-e- Absaar, , Ganj-e-Ravan, Shour-e-Khiyal, Goldaste,  Reshte-e GoharT, Jawaher Nama. Iranian thoughts and passion and ideologies have had a profound effect on the poetry of Binesh. His poetry expresses a deep and lofty emotional feeling about his interest in Iranian language and culture, and has reflected Iranian ideas in his poems as a true and loyal follower of the state. What is revealed by the poems of Binesh, his personality is tied up with integrity and truth. He has embraced ethical doctrines through his poetry through the use of knowledge and thought in an eloquent and explicit terms. A deep, precise, and insightful understanding of the concepts and terminology used in his poetry, In addition to the richness and Prosperity of his poem reflects his domination of Iranian culture, language, and knowledge in his words, and is an indication of the same interest which was aforementioned. In his poems, he has repeatedly recalled some of the cities and places of the land of Iran. A land that has not even seen before death. Also, the reflection of Iranian architecture and remembrance of some traditions such as the Nowruz celebrations of that period, popular beliefs common in Iranian culture, paying much attention to the early poets of Khorasani and Iraqi style, and all of them lead to a better understanding of the poet and also to illustrate Indirectly, some of the corners of the social and intellectual history of the Indian timurid era. The poet's interest and focus is on his ancestral land.   
Keywords: Binesh Kashmiri , ideologies, Iranian thoughts.



 

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  • Binesh Kashmiri
  • ideologies
  • Iranian thoughts
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