نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه تاریخ اسلام، دانشگاه تهران (نویسنده مسئول)

3 فارغ‌التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد تاریخ اسلام، دانشگاه تهران

10.22111/JSR.2020.36016.2118

چکیده

پس از شکل‌گیری فرقۀ قادیانی توسط غلام احمد در پنجاب، این نظریه از سوی او مطرح شد که نبوت با رحلت حضرت محمد(ص) پایان نیافته و جامعه همچنان نیازمند اصلاح و ظهور پیامبر جدید است. در برابر این اندیشه، گروه‌هایی موضع‌گیری کردند و جنبش‌هایی را علیه آن فرقه در پنجاب به راه انداختند. در این میان مجلس احرار اسلامی مهم‌ترین نهادی بود که به‌شدت علیه این فرقه فعالیت داشت. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیف و تحلیل تاریخی و با بهره‌وری از منابع و اسناد موجود به این پرسش اصلی می‌پردازد که نقش مجلس احرار اسلامی در جنبش‌های ضدقادیانی در پنجاب چه بود؟ مدعای مطرح‌شده بدین قرار است: با توجه به طرح مسئلۀ تداوم نبوت از سوی میرزا غلام احمد قادیانی و تأکید جنبش‌های ضدقادیانی بر تئوری تحفظ ختم نبوت، مجلس احرار اسلامی جنبش های مذکور را به گونه ای رهبری کرد که این فرقه را در زمرۀ اقلیت‌های مذهبی قرار داد و از فعالیت‌های آن‌ به‌عنوان یک فرقۀ اسلامی جلوگیری کرد. دستیابی به این نتیجه که تاکید مجلس احرار براندیشه تحفظ ختم نبوت، از اشاعه ادعاهای دروغین فرقه قادیانی در منطقه پاکستان جلوگیری کرد، دستاوردهای این پژوهش است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of the Ahrar Islamic Assembly in Anti-Qadiani Movements in Punjab (1929 - 1953)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali mohammad Mozzeni 1
  • khadije alemi 2
  • mohammad kazemi pour 3

1 Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, University of Tehran

2 Assistant Professor of Islamic History, University of Tehran

3 Graduate of Islamic History, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]


Extended abstract

1- Introduction
The study of the formation of Qadianiyeh and the Ahrar Islamic Assembly depends on two factors: the geographical and political situation of the Punjab region. The region was home to a large population of followers of Islam, Sikhs and Hindus, and this religious diversity had created a kind of rivalry and enmity between them. After the British conquest of the Punjab in 1849, the ground for the rise of social currents became more prepared. Muslims' confrontation with British colonialism was initially conservative and cautious; As Shah Waliullah Dehlavi (1703-1762 AD), the great Islamic thinker and thinker in the eighteenth century, was more aware of the danger of Hindus and Sikhs against Muslims than the British; But his son Abdul Aziz (1749-1824 AD) realized the danger of British domination over India and issued a fatwa calling for a Muslim uprising against Britain (Peters, 1365: 69). The result of these uprisings was the importance of the need for unity between Muslims and Hindus against the British. Which showed its size in the uprising of 1857 AD. (Masoudnia and Najafi, 1390: 98)
 The Muslims played a greater role than the Hindus in the 1857 uprising because they ruled the country for years through the Mongol Mongol government and considered themselves the owners of India. The uprising was a kind of attempt to restore the golden age of Muslim Mongol rule in India. The defeat of the uprising brought about a change in the leadership of the Muslims, the most important manifestation of which was the entry of modern Muslim thinkers and religious intellectuals (including Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan Hindi, Mir Taghi Mir, Mirza Ghalib, Mirza Abu Talib, known in London) into the field of political leadership from On the one hand (Ashraf, 1982: 188-217) and the formation of deviant sects on the other. One of these sects is the Qadianiyya, which was founded in 1889 in the Indian subcontinent of Punjab by Mirza Gholam Ahmad Qadiani (Alizadeh and Jahanjouyan, 2014: 127) and raised the issue of the continuation of prophecy. Hence, a better understanding of Qadianiyya's thoughts and developments is directly related to the developments of Punjab in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article deals with the opposition of the Islamic Revolutionary Assembly (as defenders of the idea of ​​the end of prophecy) to the thinking of the Qadianis as a key element in raising the issue of the continuation of prophecy to explore the hidden angles of the idea of ​​the continuation of prophecy with the theory of preservation of the end of prophecy.
2- Research methodology
Using the main texts and sources, the present article seeks to clarify the unspoken aspects of the motives of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in the anti-Qadiani movements in a descriptive-analytical manner. Therefore, in organizing the article, first the importance of the Punjab region and the ideological foundations of the Qadiani sect and then the formation of the Islamic Ahrar Assembly and its ideological foundations and the leadership of anti-Qadiani movements including the 1952 uprising, Jamaat-e-Islami and the anti-Qadiani propaganda branch were examined. The end of the activities of the Ahrar Parliament has been announced.
3- Discussion
The Qadianiya sect was founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani in Punjab. (Zafarullah Khan,7) According to him, Khatamiyyah was reserved only for the Shari'a prophets and the bearers of Shari'a. (Freeland, p.148-157) And the emphasis was on the issue of preserving the prophecy of the end of several movements. Anti-Qadiani riots intensified in 1952. Lahore and Punjab were the center of anti-Qadiani riots, and their main organizers were the Ahrar group, which was also supported by a large number of scholars. (Shahran, p. 80) The protesters demanded the removal of Zafarullah Khan from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the introduction of the Qadianis as a non-Muslim minority in Pakistan. (Pirzada, p.21; Nasr, p.134) Popular currents, especially in the Punjab, had joined the anti-Qadiani movement, and the ulema, although never forgetting the ideals of Islamic law; But under the influence of the mass tendencies and the Ahrar party, they used their power and influence in the service of the anti-Qadiani movement. When the Islamist forces' confrontation with the government over the Qadiani issue was completed, Jamaat-e-Islami and Mawdudi were forced to join. (Bahadur, p.68,136) But in the end this mass movement subsided with a decisive reaction from the government. In March 1953, Defense Minister Iskander Mirza established martial law in the Punjab cities, and the leaders of the Ahrar and Jamaat-e-Islami, including Mawdudi, were arrested. (Nasr, p. 137) Although Ahrar did not succeed in ending the Qadiani movement during his lifetime, the reflection of anti-Qadiani movements was manifested during the prime ministership of Zia-ul-Haq. This institution strongly influenced the Muslims so that the Muslims of Pakistan mobilized against the Qadianis. As a result of the Pakistani government in 1974, Mirza Nasser Ahmad, the third caliph of the Qadianis, was summoned to parliament and the Qadianis were questioned so that the Qadianis became a religious minority.
4- Result
Throughout the history of the Indian subcontinent, the Punjab region was the largest site of intellectual and ideological turmoil, paving the way for the formation of the Qadiani sect. Mirza Gholam Ahmad Qadiani, the founder of Qadianiyeh, claimed that the saints are the real successors of the prophets, claiming that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the successor. He emphasized that the society was largely corrupt and that it was necessary for prophets to come again to reform, and he called himself the century again. This provoked a reaction from Muslims. The most important institution that was formed against Qadianiyya was the Islamic Revolutionary Assembly, which believed in preserving the end of prophecy against Qadianiyya. The Ahrar Islamic Assembly was a Muslim political party founded in 1929. From its inception, the party had anti-imperialist, anti-feudal ideologies and nationalist interests. The strategy of the Ahrar Islamic Assembly was based on mobilizing the Muslim masses to create a movement on issues that would affect the future of India or Indian Muslims. Ahrar was ideologically influenced by the Deoband Academy of Sciences, which aimed to present a sincere version of Islam. As Ahl al-Ahrar approached the Jamaat-e-Islami, it organized anti-Qadiani movements by publishing works and writings, including the book The Problem of Qadiani by Mawdudi. But in the end, this mass movement, of which Punjab was the source and center, subsided with a decisive reaction from the government. In March 1953, Defense Minister Iskander Mirza established martial law in the Punjab cities, and the leaders of the Ahrar and Jamaat-e-Islami, including Mawdudi, were arrested. Although Ahrar did not succeed in ending the Qadiani movement during his lifetime, the reflection of anti-Qadiani movements was manifested during Zia-ul-Haq's presidency. This institution strongly influenced the Muslims so that the Muslims of Pakistan mobilized against the Qadianis. As a result of the Pakistani government in 1974, Mirza Nasser Ahmad, the third caliph of the Qadianis, was summoned to parliament to investigate the Qadianis' beliefs, so that the Qadianis became a religious minority and the main goal of the Ahrar Assembly was to preserve the end of prophecy (for several years). After the dissolution of this institution) was achieved. Under such circumstances, the Qadiani sect lost its freedom of action and came under pressure from the Muslims of Punjab, refraining from political and social activities; As it lost its influence on the Muslims of this region.
These movements included the Qadianis as religious minorities, but also pressured Pakistani governments to work for the Islamization of Pakistan and shifted the approaches of Pakistani politicians to Islamic approaches. In other words, the struggle against the activities of the extremist and deviant sect of Qadiani provided an achievement for the Islamic awakening; As the jurisprudential and doctrinal deviations were prevented and added to the knowledge of extremist sects and false claims of prophethood and salvation and led to the unity of Muslim practice in the doctrinal and political fields in Pakistan.
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Punjab
  • Anti-Qadiani Movements
  • End of Prophecy
  • Islamic Ahrar Assembly
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