متناقض‌نمایی (پارادوکس) در غزلیات زاهد تبریزی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

متناقض‌نمایی یکی ازجلوه‌های زیبایی بیان در آثار ادبی است و از عالی‌ترین شیوه‌های آشنایی‌زدایی هنری به‌شمار می‌رود که موجب دورشدن کلام از حالت عادی و برجسته‌سازی و اثرگذاری چشمگیر بر مخاطب می‌شود. در شعر سبک هندی که شعر مضمون نامیده می‌شود، متناقض‌نمایی ویژگی برجسته در خلق مضمون‌های برجسته به‌شمار می‌رود. این هنر ادبی ممکن است به‌صورت عبارت یا ترکیب به‌کار رود. سؤال اصلی تحقیق حاضر این است که زاهد تبریزی چگونه از متناقض نمایی در بارور کردن شعر خود بهره گرفته است؟ در غزلیات زاهد، متناقض‌نمایی در پیوند با هنرهای بلاغی و زیبایی‌شناختی استعاره، تشبیه، تصویر دووجهی، کنایه، ایهام وغلو، زیبایی مضمون و بیان شعر او را دوچندان کرده است؛ ضمن اینکه زاهد تبریزی بیشتر از ترکیبات متناقض‌نما برای انعکاس مفاهیم مدنظر خود استفاده کرده است. مفاهیمی که بیشتر عرفانی است؛ همچون: عشق، وصل و... روش کار توصیفی-تحلیلی و مبتنی‌بر منابع کتابخانه‌ای است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Paradox in Zahed Tabrizi's sonnets

نویسنده [English]

  • fatemeh vazifehdan-Mollashahi
Assistant Professor of Persian language and literature, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran,
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Paradox is one of the manifestations of the beauty of expression in literary works and it is considered as one of the highest methods of artistic unfamiliarity that causes the word to deviate from the normal state and has a significant impact on the audience. This literary art may be used as a phrase or combination. The main question of the present research is how Zahed Tabrizi has used paradoxical expression in fertilizing his poetry, and in what ways he has shown the beauties of this art in his beautiful lyric poems. In ascetic poems, paradox in connection with rhetorical arts and aesthetics, metaphor, simile, two-dimensional image, irony, permissiveness, ambiguity, and exaggeration are mixed and the beauty of the content and expression of his poetry is doubled. At the same time, he has mostly used paradoxical compositions to reflect his intentions. The method is descriptive-analytical and is based on library sources.
 

Introduction

Paradox is one of the most innovative and the most prominent poetic and literary tricks: "Beautiful and Very shrewd Technique" (Vahidian Kamyar, 1997 294). It is undoubtedly a rhetorical factor “which raises the basis of speech and increases the appeal and pleasantness of the speech" (Rastgoo, 1989:29). The poet achieves another universal creation by escaping from the logic governing the universe. That is, the desired and imaginative world, which is not possible in the realm of causality system, is made in poetry." (Diggs, 1987: 256). "Indian style poetry is a theme poem, not a subject" (Shamisa, 1995: 298), so the poets of this style seek to use tricks to create new themes and what better way than paradox can be effective, so " the use of paradox and the creation of paradoxical images is one of the most important factors in the attention and interests of poets of this style." (Ismaili and Hassanpour, 2016: 12)
Experts of the contemporary period also believe that one of the prominent expressive features in Indian style poetry is the use of paradox by poets of this style. (See Shafiee Kadkani, 1992: 57). Zahed Tabrizi is one of the speakers of Indian style who stands out with the paradox of the word and causes surprise and happiness, and with pleasant bites of "Double Scissors" ". (Fotouhi, 2006: 329)
The paradox makes the resident mind move and by creating sweet surprises, it pours the wine of knowledge and mysticism into its soul. In all the paradoxes of the Zahed Tabrizi, mystical concepts and the spiritual lover appear. However, many expressive and original beauties can also be found within the paradox, so the main research questions are:

How has paradox caused surprise and beauty in the poetry of Zahed Tabrizi?
How is paradox used in Zahed’s sonnets?
In the paradoxes of Zahed Tabrizi, which expressive and novel industries show themselves?

1.1. Research methodology
After collecting verses from the Divan of Zahed Tabrizi's sonnets in which the paradoxical technique of façade has been used, the author referred to the sources and articles related to this subject such as articles "Studying the reasons for increasing the frequency of paradox in Indian style" (2016), From Esmaeili and Hassanpour, in this article, the authors have considered the reasons for the high paradox in the Indian style, as well as an article by Goli and Bafekr titled: "Paradox in Saeb's Poetry" (2008), which explored the paradox in Saeb's poetry, the article "Aesthetic Paradoxical Techniques" (2016) from Bafekr, which examines the types of aesthetic paradoxes and its structure, and the article "Paradoxical Methods in Sanai's sonnets " (2018), Mahdinia and Sattari show the function of this rhetorical element in Sanai's sonnets, as well as the books of rhetorical techniques and the culture of words, phrases and ironies that are not far from the author's point of view.
According to the sources, he gathered materials to make his analysis reliable and realized this research by describing theoretical concepts and analyzing poems.

Discussion

The paradoxes of Zahed Tabrizi's poems can be divided into two groups of phrases and combinations in terms of structure, and each of these two types has its types. Sometimes paradox is used in the concept of a hemistich or stanza as a phrase or image and interpretation. These types of images have more artistic and aesthetic value than the combined paradoxes, which is abundant in the poetry of Zahed Tabrizi like being a stranger in hometown (Zahed Tabrizi, 2010: 54,), alone in circle (Ibid: 54), and… .
Paradoxical expressions and compounds in Zahed Tabrizi's Sonnets include two types:

The content paradox is the discourse that lies behind the ordinary appearance and in accordance with the custom of truth as opposed to that appearance.
Aesthetic paradox: This kind of paradox has nothing to do with contradictory content and concepts; That is, there is no contradiction in the meaning, but there are words in it that contradict each other in one sense and are not contradictory in the other. (Vahidian Kamyar, 1997: 284). This kind of paradoxical view based on expressive methods Such as similes, metaphors, two-dimensional images and irony, and novel methods like ambiguity, exaggeration and rejection, and the image are seen in Zahid’s Sonnets.


Conclusion

In addition to using a paradox to express his thoughts, Zahid has not neglected the beauty of this art. In investigating the types of paradoxes that include expressions and compounds, Zahed has used conflicting phrases more because they have more art value and aesthetics than conflicting compounds. In paradoxical expressions, zahid's attention to highlighting the word and beauty of expression is more than its content. To achieve this goal, the basis of the work is in relation to rhetorical sciences such as metaphor, irony, Iham, exaggeration and similarity, especially the metaphor (hidden), and he expresses it with allegory. Most of the paradoxes in Zahid Tabrizi's sonnets are based on the simile in the aesthetic field of Conflicting phrases.

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Indian style
  • Zahed Tabrizi
  • lyric poems
  • paradox
  • expression
  • novel
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