عنوان مقاله [English]
Metaphor, which is a compact form and an analogue, is one of the fantastic expressions of expression in literary language. Hindi style poets have a lot to do with the explanation and ambiguity that exists in the structure of metaphors. Shapurt Kharani is one of the poets of the style of India in the eleventh century, who, in proposing his themes, has a great deal of metaphor, as he has used 2166 metaphors in total. Of these, 1613 metaphors are diagnostic types, which have a great effect on imaginative and tactical visualizations. This research, using descriptive-analytic method, examines the various aspects of metaphor and its location in the city of Soupour Tehrani The poet must have a strong tendency to make the painting through accompanying it with other imaginative rhetorical practices, including likeness, poetry, inspiration, recruitment and exaggeration. The value of the metaphorical images in his poetry is more that he has been able to extend the meanings of the words in many cases, and introduces new metaphors, including the use of combinational metaphors. The metaphor of metaphor is to link the metaphor with the exception of the discontinuity. Although the poet has metaphorically metaphor in many cases, sometimes even imparts the construction of the beats, but this method does not cause confusion and ambiguity in the images.
In terms of imaginative value, metaphor is one of the highly valued imaginary figures. This is due to the fact that reader’s mind is better activated by this type of imagery and should employ imagination to a higher extent so as to go from figurative meaning to real meaning.
In this study, metaphor is analyzed as one of the significant imaginative means in Shapur Tehrani’s poems who is one of the major poets of Indian style. Shapur Tehrani was son of Khaje Khajegi who himself was a major poet of 11th century and one of the famous figures of India during Gurkanian era. He belonged to a large tribe living in Tehran. Most of the top figures of Safavid and Gurkanian eras were used to writing poetry and encouraging poets of the time (Safa, 1995: 1097). In Indian style, image is famous because it is of peculiar complexity and ambiguity. One of the factors contributing to the ambiguity is significant inclination of poets of the time to metaphor because metaphor develops two concurrent image in the reader’s mind. The delayed understanding of the image caused a famous poets of the style,Shapur Tehrani, to favor metaphor a lot. One of the primary questions of this study is “Are characteristic ambiguity and complexity of Indian style reflected in images of Shapur Tehrani’s poems and to what extent has he contributed to development of metaphor? This study primarily endeavors to show the significance of metaphoric image in the set of figurative means that poet has at hand. In addition, stylistic characteristic of metaphor in Shapur Tehrani’s poems are endeavored to be represented.
This study was conducted by adopted a descriptive-analytical methodology. To do this, all of the metaphors used in the poet’s work were written on separate notes and content analysis approach was adopted to analyze each metaphor separately.
The most significant discussion of metaphor is concerned with closeness or remoteness of literal meaning of the term from innovative or figurative meaning that poet has devised. This is the same approach of association between two sides of similie which is called aspect of likeness. If poet makes a new image, it will have significant aesthetic and verbal value because metaphor is a bond which poet makes by adopting a new and keen look at two remote and seeming unrelated elements. In Divan e Shapur Tehrani, numerous instance of this type of novel and delicate metaphors could be found. One of the techniques which Shapur Tehraniused to develop novel metaphoric images was putting three words beside each other to make a new combination which did not exist before. The combination is solely used in figurative applications.
The metaphor is used in a way that condenses and sometimes disrupts the image. In this way, quick understanding of the image is disrupted. Disruption of metaphor is done in two ways. “Sometimes, poets use a mimetic and deceptive metaphor (sometimes dead metaphor; a metaphor with clear meaning) to liken it to another metaohor” (Shamisa, 2007: 205). There are numerous instance of the metaphor in Divan e Shapur Tehrani. Another method is application of a metaphor which disrupts the image. In this case, the whole verse is based on a metaphor and not on words. This makes understanding of the poem difficult. In Divan e Shapur Tehrani, this kind of metaphor is used rarely.
From another viewpoint, one could state that the poet has accompanied almost all innovative figures with metaphor but because of his great zeal to bond metaphor to “discontinued exception” one could regard this method of metaphoric development as one of his stylistic characteristics.
One of the subjects addressed in critical analysis of imaginative figures is static or dynamic imagery. If elements of an image imply dynamism, movement and change, they have higher value and richness. This viewpoint does not value stipulated metaphor because this type of metaphor is substitution of a noun for another similar noun. In such cases, verbs are used less frequently. This is while verbs play a major role in dynamism and movement of images (Shafiee Kadekani, 2004: 254). The metaphoric analysis of Divan e Shapur Tehrani suggested that out of total 2166 metaphors used only 485 metaphors were stipulated. This means that 22.39 percent of all metaphors of the work are stipulated. The statistics suggest that the poet did not favor stipulated metaphor. In contrast, 1681 possible metaphors were used in the work out of which 1613 metaphors are cognitive. This means that 74.46 percent of all metaphors of Divan e Shapur Tehrani are made of possible metaphors which signify richness and dynamism of most of metaphors used in Shapur’s poetry. This is because out of all types of image, recognition is the liveliest and most dynamic one.
Shapur Tehrani is one of the famous poets of Indian style living in 11th century who was highly inclined to use metaphor in his poems. In sum, he used 2166 possible and stipulated metaphors to communicate his intended themes. Out of these 2166 metaphors, 485 ones are stipulated. In regard to stipulated metaphor, Shapur mostly used objects, natural elements, flowers and trees to convey figurative meanings. One of the methods that Shapur adopted to develop novel metaphoric images is use of combinational metaphors. This type of metaphor is made up of a combination of two or more words which accumulatively imply a novel meaning. In this way, he was able to develop the figurative real of meaning and offer Persian poetry with novel images. The second type of metaphor called possible metaphor was used 1681 times in Divan e Shapur Tehrani out of which 1613 (i.e. 75 percent) are cognitive. Since this type of possible metaphor plays a significant role in imaginative power and dynamism of images, one could conclude that most of the metaphors used in his poetry are dynamic and imaginative images. The poet was highly interested in decorating his metaphors y accompanying them with other verbally imaginative tricks such as similie, implication and ambiguity. This method contributed to enrichment of his images significantly. Although in most cases, he likened a metaphor to another metaphor or premised the whole verse on metaphor there is almost no case of complexity and ambiguity in his metaphoric images. In sum, one should note that apart from typical complexities of Indian style metaphors of Divan e Shapur Tehrani are distinguished by communication of theme and poet’s own feelings.
1. Anvari hasan, farhang e Kenayat e sokhan, first editon,Tehran: sokhan publication,2005.
2. Arastoo, darbareye honar e she’r ,translated by soheyl mosen afnan, first edition, Tehran: hekmat publication, 2014.
3. Dehkhoda, Aliakbar, Amsal va hekam, 13th edition, Tehran: amirkabir publication, 1385.
4.Erfan,hasan, Karaneha,3vol,8th edition,ghom:hejrat publication,2016.
5.Fakhrozamani hgazvini, mollah abdolnabi, Tazkare ye meykhane, corrected by ahmad golchin maani, Tehran :eghbal publication,1962.
6. Farshidvard, khosrow, Darbare ye adabiyat va naghde adabi,4th edition, Tehran: amir kabir publication ,2002.
7.Fotoohi, mahmood, Balaghat e tasvir, first edition, Tehran: sokhan publication, 2008.
8.Hawkes,Terence,Esteaare, translated by farzane taheri, 5th edition, Tehran: markaz publication ,2015.
9.Jorjani, abdolghaher, Asrarolbalagha, translated by jalil e tajlil, 5th edition, Tehran, university Tehran, 2011.
10.Kazzazi, mir jalalaldin, Bayan, 6th edition, Tehran: markaz publication , 2003.
11.Khalili jahantigh, maryam,Sibe baghe jan,first edition,Tehran: sokhan publication ,2002.
12.Nasr abadi, mohammadtaher, Tazkare ye nasrabadi, corrected bymohsen naji nasrabadi, first edition. Tehran: asatir publication , summer 2008.
13.Parsa, seyyed ahmad, panahi, hossein,Estearehaye tarkibi gooney no yafte az esteare dar soroodehaye khaghani,jornal boostan e adab .vol.3 ,no.2.shiraaz,2012.
14.Pornamdariyan,taghi, Safar dar meh,3thedition,Tehran:sokhan publication ,2012.
15.Rajaaei,mohammad khalil,Ma’alemolbalagha dar elme ma’ani va bayan va badei,4th edition,shiraz,publication univescity shiraz,1998.
16.Prin larens, Darbare ye she’r, translated by fateme rakei, first edition, Tehran: ettelaat publication,1998.
17.Rampoori,ghiyasodin mohammad,Ghiyas ol loghat,corrector:mansoor servat, 2 th edition, Tehran: amirkabir publication,1997.
18.Safaa,zabihollah,Tarikh adabiyat dar iran,vol5,8th edition,Tehran: ferdwos publication,1995.
19.Shaad, mohammad padshah, Farhange motaradefat va estelahat, first edition, Tehran, publication Khayyam,1968.
20.Shafi ye kadkani, mohammadreza, Sovar e khiyal dar shere farsi, 9th edition, Tehran: agah publication, 2005.
21.Shamisa, siroos, Bayan, 2thedition, Tehran: mitra publication , 2008.
22. Shams e Langroodi,Kalim Kashani va sabk e hendi,2th edition, Tehran: Markaz publication ,1993.
23.Shapoor e tehrani, Divan, corrected by yahya kardgar, 1edition, Tehran, library , museum and documentation center of Islamic consultative assembly,2004.
24.Vahidiyan kamyar,taghi,Badie az didgahe zibaeishenasi ,first edition,Tehran: doostan publication ,2001.
25.Wallek,rene,Warren,Austin,Nazariye adabiyat,translated, by ziyaa movahhed and parviz mohajer, first edition:Tehran,elmi va farhangi publication,1995.
26.Zaryab khooei, abbas, Ayine ye jaam,2thedition,Tehran: elmi publication ,1996.