امروزه در علم حقوق مطالعات تطبیقی، در محافل علمی و پژوهشی جایگاه ویژهای پیدا کرده است. علت آن است که میتوان در قوانین کشورهای دیگر نهادهای حقوقی ارزشمندی یافت که تا حد زیادی در اصلاح قوانین و تعالی حقوق کشورهای دیگر، مثمر ثمر باشد. یکی از عقودی که در قوانین برخی کشورهای اسلامی وجود دارد، نهادی به نام استحکار یا حکر است که هم اکنون در کشورهائی مانند مصر، اردن، افغانستان و ... کاربرد دارد و بخشی از مقررات قانونی آنان را به خود اختصاص داده است. این عقد در خصوص اراضیای که از حالت بهرهبرداری و انتفاع، خارج و احتیاج به عمران و آبادانی دارد، استفاده میگردد. به همین مناسبت امروزه در برخی جوامع از جمله کشور ایران، قراردادهایی رائج گردیده که فاقد عنوان صحیح حقوقی است و بررسی نهاد حکر در قانون مدنی افغانستان، میتواند راهگشای این نوع از قراردادها باشد. این پژوهش، به بررسی نهاد حکر به شیوۀ توصیفی و تحلیلی و با عنایت به قانون مدنی افغانستان پرداخته است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Studying Hokr Rights in Afghanistan Civil Code
There are numerous contracts in the Islamic jurisprudence for utilizing and exploiting the arena, which can be mentioned in the contracts of Moan Mazar, Moghreza, Mosqat, and ... in this regard. One of the types of these contracts is a contract called "Estehkar" or "Hoker", which, despite the advisability and usefulness, has not been addressed in the legal system of Iran, but in civil law in Afghanistan and in the fourth book of the seventh article of the Civil Code, The title of the various sentences has been drafted, and in the material 2323 to 2349, there is an independent subject entitled "Rightful". This agreement applies to lands that are out of use and need development and development.
In this law, there is a contract for the construction of any kind on which to receive the exchange, which is essentially different from the nature of the other contracts, including the rental agreement. These types of contracts for the construction of the land on leased real estate, in most legal systems, like the country of Iran, are placed under the title of lease contract with other conditions or contracts, and it seems to be able to This jurisprudential institution takes advantage of its independent and legal jurisprudential title. The review of this law indicates that the culprit is an independent contract of rent and requires legal and legal review. Since this institution has codified and approved laws in civil law of Afghanistan in order to clarify its nature and to apply its provisions in Iran, it is useful to examine this contract in civil law of Afghanistan, which writers intend to enter this Have an article.
The most important question to be asked about the title of this research is that:
What is the nature of the right and wrong contracts in Afghanistan's law? And what about the rules and rules of knowledge of law in Afghanistan, what are the conditions for this contract to be considered?
2- Research methodology
In order to accomplish this research and to achieve the results of the research, we use a common method of collecting information, using a library study method (studying and reviewing references), and using a hyphen for direct quotation or mohaghegh's The content is used indirectly as a quotation. Like all library studies, books and articles have been used and referring to related sites and resources.
In the fourth book of the seventh article of the Civil Code of Afghanistan, entitled "Different sentences", under the 2323-2349 articles, an independent subject entitled "Lawyer" has been mentioned, which is expressed in the terms of this legal and legal institution as follows:
Definition of right
The lawmaker of this country in civil law has placed a token in the amount of objective rights and has provided such definition in Article 2323: "Right is the right to object, which is the purpose of the survival of the land for the construction, planting or one of these Two are against certain wages. " (Mohaghegh, 909: 1388)
Contrary to Egyptian civil law, which did not provide any definition of this institution, the legislator of Afghanistan has given a clear definition in the first part of this book. One of the goals of this institution, referred to by this article, is the survival of areas that are out of exploitation and need development and development. Therefore, the owner of the right can have any seizure, including the construction of a building or a planting site, and, in exchange for such seizure, must pay a sum to the landlord as a rent. Although the contract seems to be similar to the rental agreement and can be considered as one of the effects of the rental agreement, it should be considered for that independent legal title because of the fundamental differences with the rental agreement.
The time is right
One of the basic characteristics of the institution is the length of time that the law referred to in Article 2324 and assigned it a period of 50 years, and stated: "The length of time is not exceeded from fifty years. slow. For a period of more than fifty years or so, it is credited for a period of fifty years. "(Mohaghegh, 910: 1388) This long time has given a special face to the nature of the contract. And distinguishes it from ordinary rental contracts. This institution has long been in all legal systems, and one of the differences with the rental agreement is the same feature of the length of the term.
Expiry clause and court authorization
Because of the special effects and the mixing of various contracts and the plight of multiple rights, it is not possible to conclude this contract in Afghanistan except in exceptional cases. The contract in this country shall be concluded only on the basis of necessity or expediency and with the permission of the Provincial Court, where all or a substantial part of the land is in the jurisdiction of that court. Article 2325 of this law states: "A marriage contract is not a license, except on the basis of necessity or expediency and the permission of the court of the province where all or most of the land is situated in the area of the court in terms of price. The contract shall be signed by the chairman or the member appointed by the chairman of the court. The bail will be arranged later in accordance with the law. " (Mohaghegh, 910: 1388)
Authority and authority of the owner
The right in Afghan civil law will not be dissolved by the death of one of the parties, and after the termination of the term, the property and the land and the realm will be owned by the main owners, and therefore the contract can be considered as necessary contracts. Article 2326 of the Civil Code of Afghanistan states: "The owner of the right can, on the ground under his control, make a declaration of transfer of property or profits. In all these states, the land, buildings, objects, and other immovable property after the end of the term of the right, shall be restored to the main owner or his heirs or to the observance of article 2324 of this law. " (Mohaghegh, 910: 1388) Also, according to this article, the rightful owner has the right to own and has the right to transfer to the arena.
Article 2327 of this law also states one of the rightful owner of the right: "The rightful owner can seize one and the same rights in the field and in the field". (Mohaghegh, 911: 1388) is also one of the homeowners' homeowners who pay the rent, which the owner must pay the rent to the landlord in due time: "The owner of the right is obliged to pay the assessed allowance in the agreed upon agreement , Blacksmith ". (Mohaghegh, 911: 1388)
Other assignments for the rightful owner of this law are as follows: "The owner of the right is obliged to use the means necessary to obtain the land, and the conditions agreed upon by the nature of the earth, for which the land is prepared for it. And subject to the custom of the region. " (Mohaghegh, 912: 1388)
The amount of the right is determined on the basis of the agreement of the parties, but in any case, it should not be less than the equivalent. Article 2329 of the Civil Code of Afghanistan states: "A contract is less than the amount of employment permissible, no reimbursement, or the deduction of the amount of paid employment, which may have been incurred in excess of the value of Khums in excess of or decrease in value. And has passed since the last assessment of five years. " (Mohaghegh, 911: 1388)
Article 2330 of this law also states in the preceding article: "In assessing the amount or amount of land rent, the land is to be counted when it is measured, in which the position of the land and the size of the people's desire are respected. The existence of the object or the property of the rightful owner thereof is not established or the rights and privileges of the owner of the right in the land in question are not valid for the assessment of the remuneration. "
Article 2331 of this law is related to the renewal of the right: "The new measure is valid from the date of the agreement of the parties or from the date on which the claim for payment of the claim is made." (Mohaghegh, 911: 1388).
Okay in the endowments
There is no specific property in Afghanistan civil code and can be used for endowment property. Article 2334 of this law states as to the exact relationship with the property of the endowment: "If an act has been made on the land of the endowment and the waqf's attribute from the land referred to by the waqfent is deduced from the waqf, it will end there. And if the endowment period is deducted from the waqf, if the remaining period is less than a certain period, then the waqf end time is continued.
One of the legal and legal entities is a contract called "Honest or Arbitrary", which is further mentioned by Sunni jurisprudents. The treaty is a long-term contract and, as stated, the Afghan legislator has set a maximum period of 50 years to conclude it. In this agreement, the landlord has the right to take an interest in the field and, with this in mind, can look for a lot of legal issues and new tangibles.
Of the discussed issues, it can be seen in Islamic jurisprudence that the legitimacy of this institution, which is applicable to the assignment of leased land for the construction of a land. The contract in the neighboring country of Afghanistan has a comprehensive and comprehensive legal system for concluding contracts with special conditions. Since many of the new contracts in our country are applicable to this jurisprudential institution, in view of the civil law reform plan proposed by Mohammad Jafari Jafari Langroudi, and in the third part of the fifth book and in Article 1461, And its definition, and it is suggested that the Iranian legislator will discuss a clause in Iran's civil law to discuss arbitrary contracts and express terms and conditions, in order to set up many transactions and contracts. Which is similar to the legal and legal concept.
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