عنوان مقاله [English]
The “language” in poetry is both end and instrument and the nature and function of literary texts can be just discovered by it, because “the literary texts are based on language (Bart, 2004: 59). Thus, linguistic knowledge has an amazing effect on the propagation of linguistic approach to literature. In this approach, critics consider the literary text as “a great linguistic piece” (Makarik: 1384: 256) that should be “text-oriented” by new criticism methods emerging under influence of modern linguistics and should only be interested in literary texts not its peripheral issues in reading the literary texts. This feature distinguishes the new criticism from traditional one. Review of critical text-based theories reveals that a group considers a text as closed unit that is only understandable by the text itself and a text is considered as open text, when it interacts with other texts, and in fact, any text is combination of a group of various texts. This is the same “Tanas” or “intertextuality” that has been raised by Julia Kristeva. Hence, the interaction of texts that is referred as intertextual theory is the result of linguistic approach to literacy and text-centered criticism and if is considered by critics, it is referred as inevitable case for any literary text.
Word meaning of intertextuality or “altannas” is accumulation and congestion (Al-Zubaidi, Bi Ta, Nas article) and indicates emergence, rise and accumulation (Ibn Manzour, 1988, article: Nas). The term intertextuality means various ways in which any literary text interfere inextricably with other texts by it through hidden and obvious narratives, or allusion or attraction of formal and concrete components of the previous texts or in terms of inevitable participation in common storage of literary practices. Kristeva concludes that each text is actually an “intertextual” text. It means that is a place of confluence of many other texts, even the texts that are going to be written in future (Dad 2004: 424). He believes that “any text means absorbing and transforming the other text” (Kristeva, 2002: 44). The French Rowland Part considers the new text as the result of a community of previous text components and accounts it definite and inevitable for any text (Broel 2008: 374). So the intertextuality principle is that no text is unrelated to other texts (Ahmadi, 2001: 58). Mohammad Bennis believes that text is like a field in which other texts reach each other in it. These texts are not necessarily limited to poetic texts; rather they are combination of different texts from different times (Bennis, 1979: 251).
The current study investigates the intertextual relationships of Iqbal Lahori poetries and Quran by descriptive-analytical method with linguistic approach to find intertextual ties of these two works through this study.
Various intertextual texts have been found in Iqbal poetry by the aim of expressing the important issues of religious, beliefs and … including:
3-1 Ijtirar (partial negation)
The author take a partial part of absent text from intertextual relationships in his work and the current study is continue of absent text (Ozam, 2001: 116). This law is the easiest and superficial type of intertextual relationships in which uses of author from absent text can be a word or a letter that is applied consciously and without innovation by author. Iqbal has used this technique in his poems to express the ethical issues such as “the characteristics of a transcendental person, trust in God, and lack of fear from others ...".
3-2 Symmetric negation (imtisas)
In this type of intertextual relationship, the hidden text is accepted by author and is used in the current text such that its essence doesn’t change (Mousa, 2000: 55). This type has a higher surface than the previous type that is with little innovation from author (Mirzai, 2009: 301). This level of intertextual is an intermediate level of effect and influence in which the hidden text in seen in a changed new form and novel format. But it doesn’t fade and its footprint is always visible in the new text. By referring to issues such as "The Muslim Ummah, Acts of Audit, Sincerity and Surrender ...", this literary technique has been used in the lyrics of Iqbal.
3-3 Havar (total negation)
The third level is the highest level of this effect and influence, and the only subtle layer of hidden text that appears on surface layer of text by very delicate and partial clues. At this level, the mother text is generally neglected and a contradict style is infiltrated in the creation of new text (R. K: Nahem, 2007, 49-66). Havar need a deep and conscious read, because the hidden text is not received easily and the creator of text in this regard, recreates the hidden text completely (Vad Allah, 2005: 37). So it is considered as the excellent kind of intertextuality. Understanding this type of intertextuality need a lot of intellectual effort to discover the underlying layers of text and make the unsaying clear (Mirzai, 1388: 306). Allameh has benefited this kind of intertextuality skillfully through his poetries.
Intertextuality is a theory that focuses on borrowing the text from other texts. Based on this theory, there is no independent text, but rather and text is born from past or contemporary texts. In other words, each text is an intertextual and the cross location of various texts. The poetry of poets is no exception and some time influences each other or is influenced by other religious sources. One of the texts that have appeared extensively in poetries is Holy Quran. Many poets such as Allameh Iqbal Lahori had a long standing friendship with Quran, and had benefited the verses of Quran in his poetries directly or indirectly in order to influence more on audiences. In the Allameh odes, application of intertextual style in raising the ethical issues has more extensive area, and this literary styles have been used in the next levels in order to refer to prophet stories and principles and practices of the religion and …. The various type of intertextual is seen among these two texts. But partial negation intertextual is more applicable, but the symmetry negation intertextual and total negation is seen in some of the couplets.
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