عنوان مقاله [English]
Persian language and literature have a long history in India. About the history of the prevalence of Persian language and literature in the subcontinent, it comes from historical documents that in the third century AH, for the first time, the Indians had the opportunity to become effectively familiar with Persian speakers. With the arrival of Ghaznavids, a steady stream of conquest of India begun. Although Ghaznavids were Turkish, the Persian language was the cultural, the official and the governmental language, and at the time of their rule, Lahore first became the second capital and then the capital of the dynasty, where the Persian language became the language of the Iranian elite. One of the most important features of the Persian language in the Indian subcontinent is the inclusion of Persian sentences and words on the coins, it happened during the reign of the Mongols over the subcontinent, In Indian coins before the Mongols, Persian words are less visible. And since then, people who understood the Persian language transformed it into coins, and even added Persian poems to coins of the Indian Mongols and other Indian indigenous governments. Persian language was the second language of the country before the British entered India, and the official, cultural and scientific language. The officialism of the Persian language as the language of religion, politics, literature, and art in the subcontinent led to the creation of many Persian works in that land by subcontinent or Iranian people and other immigrants. "Many works show the influence of the Iranian language culture and art in the subcontinent. In the court of Delhi, the king and courtiers all spoke in Persian, in which the Persian language in India was a scientific language and a progressive one and a reason for honor and dignity. The letter written by the kings themselves, such as the notes of Jahangir Noor al-Din, the son of Akbar, which all are in Persian, predicate the authenticity of that language in India (Bahar, 2011: 3: 257). The research will answer the following questions:
From when Persian coins become popular in India?
Do Persian coins in India have become effective in expanding Persian language?
Did the British East India Company's efforts and skullduggeries slacken the Persian language in India?
Therefore, the hypotheses are as follows:
1- During the period of the Indian Mongols, many coins were multiplied in Persian
2- Coins have been effective in the development of Persian language. 3- The British and East India Company subvert Persian language with colonial planned efforts were one of the factors of the Persian sluggishness in India.
The research's aim is about the historical and literary significance of coins in the Indian Mughals which is not written anything about it. In this study, coins of the Mongolian period of India were identified and examined in terms of the importance of Persian language prevalence in the subcontinent. And it's one of the first things to do.which is not written anything about it..
This research is done by descriptive-analytical method and content analysis. The theoretical foundations of the research have been identified and analyzed on the basis of historical sources and cognitive findings of Persian poems and slogans on coins.
One of the most important Persian language features in the Indian subcontinent is the stamp of Persian sentences on coins; it seems that it has happened since the rule of the Mongols in the subcontinent. People who were familiar with Persian language and who collaborated in the Indian Mongolian government, who were interested in important jobs and dignities, and given the fact that Persian was the language of the official and administrative, and everyone was familiar with it added the phrases, names and even Persian poems to the coins of the Indian Moguls and other local Indian governments. It reflects the deep influence of Persian civilization, culture and art, language and manuscript, and literature in this era, although the first coin was multiplied by Persian poet in Mohammad Karim Shah Amir Gujarat age. (842-855) During the other period of the Mongol kings, the Persian sentences, especially Persian poems, were written and multiplied for various events, in particular, the events of the kings. The period of the Jahangir was multiplied by the monthly coins, with the names of those months, such as April, May, and others. A number of them are introduced in this research, and it was a new innovation in the spread of Persian poems over coins. Another new issue in Jahangir's coins was the introduction of verses of the cities in where the coin was multiplied (Abdolsattar bin Ghasim Lahori 1385:211-213) Jahangir speaks in a historic book called Tozak Jahangiri or Jahangir, written in Persian by himself, about the changes that have been made to coins: On these coins, Persian poems are carved and says:" In no covenant is a metal other than copper coin, and the golden and silver penny of my invention is the name of the metal of Jahangiri"(Jahangir Gorkani 1359:238,258) The presence of the British in the form of an East India Company in the subcontinent was the beginning of the end of the golden age of Persian literature in India; the British at the very beginning of their presence noticed the dramatic influence of Persian and Islam on the culture of Indian people and sought to overcome it and succeeded in replacing English, while the East India Company multiplied its coin in Persian at the beginning.
By carefully studying the coins, the dusty and forgotten history of the past century is revealed, coins nowadays play a significant role in recognizing the religions and faiths and the tendencies of the kings, By studying how the progress and degeneration can be learned in different periods and among the relatives. Today, almost nobody speaks Persian in the Indian subcontinent, while up until the close proximity to us; the Persian language was the official, scientific, cultural and educational language of the subcontinent. In addition to the vast signs of Persian language that left many works, buildings and books in India, many coins with diverse Persian poems have been another glowing examples of Persian language domination in India, a domination that even the East Indian company has forced It was accepted that the coins were multiplied in Persian for a long time, but gradually several factors contributed to the weakening of the Persian language in India, in which the prevalence of English language was one of these factors. The poems and names in Persian in coins that have once been prevalent in India have been indicative of the widespread and proliferation of Persian language and literature, culture and language in this vast land. Coins nowadays play a significant role in recognizing the religions and faiths and the tendencies of the kings. By studying it, one can understand the progress and decline of civilizations in different periods and among the tribes.
Keywords: Indian subcontinent, Persian language, Coins, East India Company, Indian Mongols
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