عنوان مقاله [English]
The Gulbarga Mosque in the city of Gulbarga, the capital of the Bahamanid Sultans in the Deccan area of India, was constructed in the year 769 AH by the architect Rafi Qazvini. How did an Iranian architect of the eighth century appear in the distant region and created a magnificent work that is still steady? The Features of the architectural and technical index of this mosque and the reason for its sustainability, despite the destruction of other buildings in the city, have raised questions in facing this building and require a clear answer. The hypothesis of the Genesis research suggests that the Iranian architecture in that area is influenced by cultural and artistic waves with the presence of artists such as the architect at that point in the world; a process exhibited by the Iranian-Deccan style, different from the Indian Mongolian style architecture. The research method is analytical-descriptive. The results of the research, the application of the principles of Persian architecture extensive use of the Iranian Columbus vault and domes, and the root of the combination of elements of Indian architecture, including the" Panchayatana" in This makes the building clear.
The Gulbarga Mosque was built by the Iranian architect Qazvin in the time of the belfries, and despite the Indian features in terms of the architecture and structure, especially in the types of roofs and views and arches and arch, the original and rooted Iranian architecture to Which continues to exist seven hundred years after the date of its construction (Blair, 1381, 181). Architectural and artistic studies in Deccan reveal a wide range of influences on Iranian architecture in this land, which is largely independent of the art school and architecture of the Mongolian style of the North in the north, Agra. At the time of the Gulbarga kings, along with merchants and scientists, a large group of industrialists and architects also entered Deccan. These architects began to build buildings in the same style and style that they used to be in Iran, as if these buildings, both in design and in construction, were brought to Iran from one place to another (Masoumi, 2010, 195) . The research hypothesis considers the root of Islamic architecture of the Indian subcontinent in the development and domination of Iranian cultural art, especially in the field of architecture and structure, in combination with Indian elements. The Sultans used a certain style for their art from simultaneous Iranian art (Hallid, Gotts, 2005, 71). Due to the support of Bahman Shah from literati, scholars and artists, many of them migrated from Iran to Deccan and cultivated the culture and civilization of Iran in that land (Seyyed Hosseinzadeh, 2012, 5284). This study analyzes the physical space of this work is rooted in its architectural and structural design that provides the stability of the Gulbarga Mosque to the present. In addition to Iranian architecture, due to the use of some elements and principles of local architecture, the style of the building can be considered "Iranian-Deccan". Some have compared the Gulbarga Mosque with the Cordoba Mosque and have even considered it a mimic (Patal, 2016, 11-20). It should be noted that neither the shape of the arches nor the way of implementation is the smallest in Cordoba's comprehensive coverage of the Gulbarga mosque. Contrary to such statements, it should be said that the most prominent example of the arch vault is comparable to the Mosque of Gulbarga, the mosque of Isfahan.
2. Research methodology
Procedure of research in this paper is fundamental and research method is descriptive-analytical. Due to the critique of the theories on the architecture of the mosque of Gulbarga, we tried to compare and adapt a new horizon to the Islamic Architects Opens up, By the analyzing, comparing and deducing from the original Iranian historical and artistic evidence, it will try to obtain the expected and necessary results regarding the authenticity of the Iranian architecture. Multiple documentary and library studies, studying satellite imagery and new and old images of the extensive study of existing and published information on the World Wide Web, with the adaptation of the existing body based on the experiences and examples of Iranian architecture, perform the necessary documentation and By describing and analyzing the data, it will reveal the origin of the ideas and the design of the building, with the necessary conclusions, with a more complete introduction of it.
Most of the mosques that were built in the era of the Mughal Sultans, of India and before that, especially before them in northern India, have a central or four-Ivan's yard, and in some Cases a dome-house. The Gulbarga Mosque has a different map and has an arched roof covering all around it, which seems to be designed for rainy weather (Bunce, 2008, 56). The Gulbarga Mosque is considered to be less known among the Iranian and non-Iranian architectural community. Unfortunately, it has to be said that a document other than the inscription of this building has not yet been found in its architect's or other works. Even the researchers wrote the name of the architect in various ways, such as "Rafi" (Blair, Bloom, 1381, 180), or "Refie" (Soruri, Mohammad Hosseini, 1394). The few mosques in India's sub-continent are comparable to the Gulbarga mosque in terms of their introverted design. A mosque called the" Shast Gumbaz", Persian word meaning Sixty Dome, built in 1459 by Khan Jahan, the governor of the Sundarbans. It is located in Bagerhat district in southern Bangladesh, with a width of 49 × 45 × 49 (Tariq &, 2013, 46). The city of Gulbarga was the capital of Bahmanian for 75 years. Most Bahmanian buildings have been built by Iranian architects in the traditional style of architecture in Iran. The Gulbarga Mosque was built inside of Gulbarga Fort. Most of the sources mention the number of central vaults of the building, Columbus, as 63. While the number of Colombo vaults in the Gulbarga roof is 75, with 27 Barrel Vaults and 5 domes of the ceiling of the building. The Gulbarga Mosque has a unique map and the mosque's design is not replicated in other places in Deccan (Yazdani, 1995, 22). From engineering techniques in the Gulbarga Mosque, the skilled use of the architect is based on the principle of the opposition of force to stand (Fig. 3). The most prominent example of the application of the principle of power opposition, Is the structures of the Palace of Ardeshir in Firoozabad, belonging to the early Sassanid period of more than 1,700 years (Fig. 5). Usually in the architecture of the Iranian mosques, only one dome on the side of the mosque facing the Qibla The research revealed that the arrangement of the five domes of the building is related to the conventional attitude and Hindu worldview. This combination Design ancient Hindu temples "Panchayatana» called (Ritze, 1998, 56); Which means "five styles" in Sanskrit.
Bahmanian era is when Iranian scholars, architects, artists and writers emigrated to the Deccan, creating Iranian culture and civilization and Iranian architecture and art in this land. Buildings built in Bahmanian era are often made by Iranian architects in the traditional architecture of Iran and a combination of local traditions, and Persian inscriptions with Nastaliq and Solth epigraphs, represent and decorate these constructions. Architectural style of the Deccan era can be called Iranian-Deccan architecture. The tendency of the kings of Bahmani to the Shia religion played a key role in promoting Iranian culture in this area. The Gulbarga Mosque is one of the best examples of Persian architecture in the land of Deccan. In general, these events successfully introduced and developed the Iranian construction and architecture techniques in Deccan. The building of the mosque of Gulbarga has recorded the name of the architect Rafi Qazvini in his inscription. With full control over his science, he used Iranian arches and domes, and he used the principle of force interaction widely in the construction of the building to balance the building, which is one of the main reasons for sustainability until today. The original, one of the most common principles in Iranian architecture before Islam, was also used at the Firuzabad Palace. Despite the preponderance of Iranian architecture in this mosque, layers of elements and principles of Indian architecture are also evident on the basis of the principles of "Vasto Shastra" and Mandala in this building. The construction of five domes, on the roof of the mosque, describes the principles governing the design of the Hindu architecture called Panchayatana. A combination that was used in many of the Islamic monuments of India, including the Taj Mahal, the tomb of Hoshang Shah, and so on. The correction of a series of commonly used theory of flaws in this regard is one of the other achievements of the present research. The research revealed that the design of a mosque with a Columbus vault is a Persian design. It was also found that the Gulbarga Mosque, despite the special innovations in its architectural design, was not the only mosque throughout the roof of the Islamic world or the subcontinent. The feature of the sky line, the lack of long, long headed arches, and the non-standard mode in the body of the body, has given it an irrevocable shape.
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