میراث مشترک ایران و هند به قبل از مهاجرت آریاییها و زمانی که این دو ملت در کنار هم و با یک زبان و مذهب زندگی میکردند، برمیگردد. روابط تجاری بین تمدن «موهنجودارو» و «هاراپا» در هند با تمدنهای سیلک و شهر سوخته در ایران برقرار بودهاست. در عصر ساسانی این روابط با حکومتهای شمالی و جنوبی هند در کنار روابط فرهنگی و سیاسی گسترش یافت. بررسی روابط اقتصادی ساسانیان با هند و نتایج حاصل از آن مسألۀ این تحقیق است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و بازنگری منابع کتابخانهای، بهدنبال پاسخ به این سؤال است که این روابط تحتتأثیر چه عواملی قرار داشتهاست و نتایج حاصل از آن چه بودهاست؟ نتایج بهدستآمده از نوشتار نشان میدهد، رقابت ساسانیان با روم در تجارت با غرب و شرق از یک طرف و رقابتهای داخلی حکومتهای شمال و جنوب هند ازطرفی دیگر، تبادلات اقتصادی ساسانیان با شرق و بهخصوص هند را به دوران طلایی رساند و نتایج حاصل از آن منجر به گسترش روابط اقتصادی، فرهنگی و سیاسی مسلمانان با هند بعد از سقوط ساسانیان شد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Economic Relations between Iran and India in the Sassanid Era (224 AD to 642 AD)
The common heritage of Iran and India before the migration of the Aryans, and when the two nations lived together with one language and religio.Trade realtiond between Mohenhodaro civilization and Harapa in India have been established with the civilizations of Sialk and the burned city in Iran.
In the Sasanian era, these ties with the northern and southern governments of India, along with cultural and political relations, spread.The study of Sassanian economic relations with India and the results of this study are the subject of this research.In this research, using descriptive-analytical method and review of library resources, we seek to answer the question which factors influenced by these relations and what were the results of what ?. The results of the paper show that the Sassanian rivalry with Roman in trade with the West and the East, and the domestic competition of the northern and southern provinces on the other hand, brought the Sassanian economic exchanges with the East, and in particular India into the Golden Age. And its results led to the expansion of Muslim economic, cultural and political relations with India after the fall of the Sasanians
Extensive Abstract :
With the formation of the Sassanid Empire in Iran, the political scene of this region has changed, and with the movement that emerged at the beginning of the Sassanid era in order to create national and political unity, the borders of Iran in the east were again drawn to the banks of the Sindh River and its domains of Hindu Kush; The Sassanid princes who were appointed and appointed to govern those areas were Shah Sakestan, Thurand and India. On the other hand, with the advent of the Gupta Empire in India since the early 4th century AD and the expansion of their territory during the reign of Gupta and Semodira Gupta, political, cultural and economic relations expanded. Given the Sassanian rivalry with Rome on the trade routes between the West and the East, the issue of Iran-India trade relations in the Sassanid era is of particular importance. The fundamental question in this research is to examine the important factors and the results of these business relationships.
In the era of Vedic, the Sassanian and Indian economic relations started from Ardeshir of Babacan, and at the time of the fifth Bahram, it reached its peak in the states of Khosrow Anushirvan and Khosrouparviz; in the Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Iran-India relations and commodity exchanges, as well as their names, were much narrated The story of the Sassanian kings in India and the marriage of Bahram V to the Indian daughter have come to an end, and Muslim historians such as Balami, Mas'udi, and sa'alebi have cited it and differentiated it, suggesting the establishment of an all-embracing relationship between the two civilizations. . The crossing of the two international routes of silk and spice from Iran was a major factor in the strengthening of trade relations, which also led to political and cultural relations. With the development of sea routes from the sixth century and the Roman and Sassanid dynasties, they were the Sassanians who won the competition and had a monopoly of trade between the West and the East, and the Gulf Trade Center was a trade center with India.
Looking at the position of Iran in the Sassanid era and crossing two important trade routes, namely, silk and spice from Iran, and its rivalries with Rome over domination of trade routes between the West and the East, as well as the continuation and strengthening of the commercial, political and cultural relations of Muslims after the fall of the Sasanians The importance and necessity of research is more evident. Examining the quality and quantity of business relationships and their results are the research objectives.
1- Research methodology:
The research method is descriptive-analytical and review of existing library information and new research.
The land of India was on the way of two international trade routes that crossed Iran and were a good factor for the trade relations between Iran and India. After the high-risk roads, including silk, were unsafe due to the presence of bandits. The sea routes from the Persian Gulf became important on the shores of India. At the time, the Sassanid included an important part of India and Punjab to Delhi, near Malawi, Sakestan, Baluchistan, Kabul, and most of Kushan to Peshawar, from the Euphrates to the Merv, and from Herat to Sassanid Sistan (Majomdar , 2001: 283) Ardeshir returns to Persia after conquering the Punjab after receiving the ransom (Ojha, 1968: 140-4). In the third century, the Sassanians advanced to the heart of India, and even Malawi in Central India, which later became one of the centers of power Gupta occupied. (Guetz, 1336: 154), during the time of the fifth verse, traces the historical traditions of the great relations between the two countries.
In the era of Shahpur II (310-379 AD), according to the existing documents, Iran-India trade relations had developed extensively. India imported and sold valuable and valuable goods to the West. Hindi historian Toplieh believes that the most and lasting effect among foreign agents is Iranians and points out that because of the political dominance of the Sassanid regime in the region, trade ties have been expanded and Indian people welcome food, clothing and household supplies or Iranian imports. They used and used it, and this resulted in the cultural and economic influence of Iranians. (Thapliyal, 1979: 166-9), Durgh refers to the carving of the Ajenta Cave, and believes that the images of the second Pulaxin reception are from the ambassadors of Khosrow Anoshirvan, and also believes that the Iranian ambassadors, due to the war between the government of Gupta and the rule of the Herself from the sea route They have gone there and concluded that Iranian-Indian maritime relations have been established in various fields. (1879-22 Durgess) During the reign of Khosrow I (531-579 AD), relations between Iran and India more developed and expanded than before, and diaspora ambassadors were exchanged between the two countries; and the flow of travel between nationals of both countries increased, and scientists and The scholars of Iran and India have found more communication.
In the age of the Sasanians, especially Khosrow I and II, which had extensive communication with the outside world, Iran benefited from the civilization of the East, especially India. India was described as a mysterious land of wonderland for the Sasanians, so there is no doubt that the Sassanid kings sought to reach India and benefit from it. The Sasanians considered the East as their traditional allies. The southern government's rivalry of the Chalukkiah dynasty with the Northern kings provided the bases for more Indian-Sassanian communication. . The Chalukeeyah dynasty was trying to create prosperity for its people, sending ambassadors to its neighbors and trying to establish political and trade relations with Iran. The image of the No. 1 cave in Ententa depicts the Iranian ambassadors in color. This look of the Indian king of the Sassanid era and their thoughts and beliefs are based on the Ahimsa and Satayagraha principles, with adherence to the principle of tolerance, non-violence and tolerance to alien intellectual elements and the advancement of scientific centers such as Taxila, Ojin and Ajenta It was a great opportunity for the Sassanians to come to their businessmen and diplomats in the west and east of India. When the relations between Iran and Roman Sassanid era were accompanied by war, lack of respect and trust, the result was not a deterioration and poverty and hardship for the people and the government; in the East, especially India, political interactions were aimed at the advancement of commercial and cultural relations and led to prosperity And the comfort of the people and the effects of those years and even up to the present time. In the era of Khosrow 1st and 2nd Sassanid era, the strongest economic relations were the result of positive political and cultural affairs and economic relations with India, and it is referred to as the golden age of Iran-India relations. The Silk Road and the Persian Gulf were the most important links between the East and the West, and Iran's Sassanid Age made maximum use of these conditions. The coins obtained from Sassanid kings in India witness this claim. The great power and authority of Khosrow I and II, and relative stability inside and outside Iran's borders and the creation of a rivalry between the two great powers of northern and southern India, managed to control the commercial ways of the East and establish a more active diplomacy than its longtime Western rival, Rome. In the end, it can be argued that when political relationships are created based on mutual respect, they will pursue more active and wider economic and cultural relations. It is hoped that today's politicians, using historical experiences and historical sociology, will look at the solution to today's problems and better future in the historical roots of nations, and to learn from past mistakes and not to force their nations to repeat horrific events of history.
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