عبدالماجد دریابادی از مفسران سنی مذهب قرن چهاردهم و تفسیر او معروف به تفسیر ماجدی از تفاسیر مهم در شبهقاره هند است. دریابادی در قرن نوزدهم میلادی، زمانی که قرآن با شبهاتی جدید روبرو گردید به دفاع و شبهه زدایی از قرآن پرداخت. ازاینرو، تفسیری جدید مطابق با نیاز جامعه بشری در عصر خود به دو زبان اردو و انگلیسی، ارائه داد. درونمایه باارزش این تفسیر، تحقیق و معرفی این اثر ارزشمند را بایسته میسازد. نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، ضمن معرفی نویسنده و تبیین جایگاه و اهمیت این تفسیر، به ذکر پارهای از ویژگیهای آن پرداخته و چنین نتیجه میگیرد که تفسیر ماجدی از مهمترین تفاسیر قرن 14 است که پاسخ به شبهات عصر، دوری از تفسیر به رأی، مطالعه تطبیقی قران با کتب پیشین، پاسخ مستدل به شبهات یهود و نصاری، برخورداری از نثری روان و روشن و... از برجستهترین ویژگیهای این تفسیر است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Abd- al-Majid Daryabadi and his interpretation
Abd.Al.Majedi Daryabadi is one of Sunni commentators in the fourteenth century. His commentary known as Majedi's commentary, is of important commentary on the Indian subcontinent. Majedi in the nineteenth century, when the Qur'an was faced with a new challenge, defend and disprove the Qur'an, therefore, a new commentary, in accordance with the humanitarian needs of the present age, provided in both Urdu and English languages. The important content of this commentary, it is imperative to research and present this valuable work.
Current essay with the usage of descriptive- analytic method, with introducing the author, and the importance of this interpretation is going to explain Interpretative features and examples, and concludes that Majedi's commentary is of important commentary in fourteenth century, that its important characteristic are: answering the dilemmas of the evening, employing the sciences in the interpretation of the Qur'an, avoiding commentary on the ballot, comparative study of the Quran and the former Qur'an, a well-grounded answer to the doubts of the Jews and Christians, the enjoyment of a clear and psychological passion, showing the superiority of the social system of Islam to other systems.
Keywords:Interpretation, Subcontinent, Majedi.
Since the early years of the nineteenth century, the experimental researches affected all aspects of personal, social and religious life. Meanwhile, Islam particularly the Qur’an became the target of attacks. The data of the Qur’an including history, geography and science was behaved with suspects and some incorrect points were written. There were new misgivings and doubts about the Qur’an. The modern technology became a new tool for refusing, creating doubts and denying the Qur’an. As, apart from non-Muslims, many Muslim intellectuals also lost their faith about the divinity of the Qur’an. Here the duty of defending and removing doubts from the holy sanctuary of the Qur’an became heavy on the shoulders of Qur’an-believers and religious researchers. There was need of a person who could respond strongly and persuasively the questions and doubts arose from the results of experimental researches in an updated methodology. To substantiate this great goal, Molana Abdolmajed Daryabadi presented two new exegeses in Urdu and English according to the need of human society of the current time. He obliged researchers and defenders of the holy sanctuary of the Qur’an by fulfilling this heavy duty. Hence, the present essay meditates to find responses for these questions: what are the opinions of the writer of Tafseer-e-Majedi? What are the most important features and preferences of Tafseer-e-Majedi?
2- Research methodology
The present writing studies the biography of Tafseer-e-Daryabadi, his opinions and the features of his exegesis by using exegetical methods with a descriptive-analytical approach and method of making theoretic studies. The information was gathered in bibliographical-digital (documentary) method; most of the research’s materials have been derived and translated directly from the authors of Molana Daryabadi. Especially his two works, Tafseer-e-Majedi and biography namely “Aap Beeti” with the rest of available sources have been utilized.
Molana Abdolmajed Daryabadi worked hard to study all researches, done in the West or East in past or in modern time, which confirm the verses of the Qur’an and he referred to them in his exegesis. He gathered materials about the Qur’anic stories, geographic places, individuals, nations, religions and etc. as lots of materials have been gathered in one place (Nadawi, preface of Tafseer-e-Majedi, p2-3). For example, the Qur’an says about Jews: “وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَیْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْکَنَةُ; and stuck upon them were abjection and poverty.” [2:61] There is a hesitation that a group has been introduces as poor that owns great wealth and their great capitals are famous globally. How they can be called poor and indigent? Molana Daryabadi wrote in response to this hesitation: according to the information given by Jewish Encyclopedia, written by Jewish researchers, it is a false fame that Jews are rich; because enormous capitals are limited to Jewish leaders and famous figure. But common Jews and Jewish nation, as the statistics of all researchers suggest, are among the poorest nations of the world. Jews who live in the Europe are among the poorest people of those countries. Every country where more Jews live has a greater number of poor people. (Daryabadi, 1997, vol. 1 p. 146)
One of the other exclusivities of Tafseer-e-Majedi is that its author has studied comparatively the Qur’an and previous books, especially the Torah and Evangel. In the comparison, he unveiled distortions and additions in the Torah and Evangel. In the 38th verse of chapter Qaaf, Allah says: “وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَیْنَهُمَا فِی سِتَّةِ أَیَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِنْ لُغُوبٍ؛ and assuredly We created the heavens and the earth and whatsoever is in between the twain in six days, and there touched Us naught of weariness.” This verse upraised astonishment that Allah is Strong, Mighty, Able and Supreme, why did he say that he was not touched by weariness?! But the value of this sentence can be known when we see the topic in the Bible: “And he rested on seventh day from all his work which he had made” [Gen. 2:2]
The Qur’an says about the prophet Sulaiman (Solomon): “وَمَا کَفَرَ سُلَیْمَانُ وَلَکِنَّ الشَّیَاطِینَ کَفَرُوا; and Sulaiman blasphemed not, but the Satans blasphemed.” [2:102] An unaware person may be surprised that what was the need to say a great divine prophet has not blasphemed. But when we study the present Evangel and examine the reports which are popular among this great prophet, we see they clearly accuse this prophet for shirk, idolatry and teaching magic. (Daryabadi, 1997, vol. 1, p. 199)
One of the different and especial exegeses is ‘Tafseer-e-Majedi’ authored by Molana Abdolmajed Daryabadi in the latter years of the fourteenth Hijri century in the Indian subcontinent. Daryabadi was living in the nineteenth century AD, a century in which materialism and adoption of test tools replaced the mere rational discussions and the Qur’an was targeted by new doubts. The opinions of Daryabadi underwent some changes. In the beginning, he used to deny accepting many religious realities. After passing the stage, he concluded that religious realities should be preferred and stood on the first stage. Abdolmajed Daryabadi felt that it is his duty to defend the holy sanctum of the Qur’an and remove the doubts. He presented a new exegesis into two languages of Urdu and English in accordance with the need of human society of the time. The main exclusivity of this exegesis is removal of misgivings. He responded rationally to doubts of sceptic minds of philosophers and some Muslim intellectuals who were influenced by Western secularism about some Qur’anic verses as the mind of reader accepts the Qur’an as a clear and fault free book with sound mind. It is the feature of this exegesis that it has utilized the modern science and new researches in service of the Qur’an without being influenced by absurd claims, baseless and so-called scientific slogans of Westerners. The most important feature of this exegesis is that it has presented a comparative study of the Qur’an and old divine books, particularly the Torah and Evangel; a work which had not carried out until that time by any exegete but by Daryabadi. It can be said generally: responding doubts of the time, using science in exegesis of the Qur’an, avoiding from eisegesis, comparative study of the Qur’an and previous divine books, adductive response to the misgivings of Jews and Christians, enjoying smooth and clear prose, proving the social system of Islam to the rest of systems and etc. are among the most important features of Tafseer-e-Majedi.
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