دیپلماسی فرهنگی، به عنوان ابزاری کار آمد و قابل انعطاف در سیاست خارجی که نمونه ی بارز و اَعلای اِعمال قدرت نرم است، شکل نوینی از دیپلماسی قرن است که ضمن بهره گیری از تمامی اَشکال دیپلماسی، درصدد برقراری، توسعه و پیگیری روابط با سایر دولت ـ ملتها از طریق فرهنگ، هنر و آموزش در راستای پیگیری منافع ملی و اهداف سیاست خارجی است. در این بین هندوستان به عنوان قدرت نو ظهور اقتصادی در فضای پس از جنگ سرد و طی سالیان اخیر، در راستای پیگیری منافع ملی و بیشنیه سازی قدرتِ رو به تزاید خود، درصدد برآمده تا از ظرفیت بالای دیپلماسی فرهنگی بهره گیری حداکثری را به عمل آورد. حال با توجه به موارد فوق الذکر، پرسشی که نگارندگان پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و با به کارگری مؤلفه های دیپلماسی فرهنگی درصدد پاسخ به چرایی آن بر آمدهاند این است که دیپلماسی فرهنگی چه جایگاهی در سیاست خارجی دهلی نو در فضای پساجنگ سرد داشته است؟ طبق نتایج پژوهش حاضر، دهلی نو با توجه به پیشینه مذهبی، تاریخی، فرهنگی و تمدنی خود، از منابع عظیم فرهنگی در مقایسه با بسیاری از کشور های دیگر برخوردار است. این امر به نوبه خود سبب شده تا مقامات دهلینو پس از پایان جنگ سرد روی به سمت مؤلفه هایِ ژرف دیپلماسی فرهنگی در سیاست خارجی خود بیاورند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Status of Cultural Diplomacy in India’s Foreign Policy: Sources and Future Perspective
Cultural Diplomacy, as a flexible and efficient instrument in foreign policy, is a basis for promotion of relations between states. It can be provided the proper background for mutual understanding between humanity through extension of cultural interactions, increasing of educational-Scientific cooperation, etc. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and ending of ideological dispute between two blocs create a new era for growing the role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy. India, as the world’s largest democracy, tries to use cultural diplomacy to promote its status in the international system. The main question of the article is «what is the status of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy after end of the Cold War? ». By using the hypothesis of this article is «with regard to historical, cultural and civilizational background, India is promoting the role of cultural diplomacy in its foreign policy». This article aims to address the status and role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy. This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical method.
Cultural Diplomacy, as a flexible and efficient instrument in foreign policy, is a basis for promotion of relations between states. It can be provided the proper background for mutual understanding between humanity through extension of cultural interactions, increasing of educational-Scientific cooperation, etc. (Haghighi, 2009: 343).
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and ending of ideological dispute between two blocs create a new era for growing the role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy (Kolaee and Vaezi, 2011: 249). The recent history of China, the United States, Russia, the Britain and France show that the great powers use of diverse kinds of diplomacy including cultural diplomacy (Taheri, 2017: 157). India, as the world’s largest democracy, tries to use cultural diplomacy to promote its status in the international system. The main question of the article is «what is the status of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy after end of the Cold War?»
2- Research Methodology
This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical method. The main objective of this type of research is to describe the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is going on. In this type of research, all kinds of survey method are utilized including comparative method. On the other hand, the researcher has to use facts and information which are available and after collecting these data the researcher can analyze and make a critical evaluation on the materials in the method of analytical research.
In contemporary Period, Cultural diplomacy is a significant instrument of foreign policy. It helps in promoting international links with countries and people in the world. India has recognized the importance of cultural diplomacy as a part of its soft power strategy in promoting its national interests and establishing itself as a dominant regional and global power. (Pratab, 2015: 55) India for fulfillment of cultural diplomacy in its foreign policy uses some ideational and cultural sources like ancient history and its famous leaders. However, the use of cultural diplomacy as instrument of foreign policy face some challenges like the image of India in International politics, increasing poverty and miserable situation of children.
Cultural diplomacy “creates an additional space which softens the sharp edges of foreign policy thus fostering a favorable public opinion impacting foreign policy”. In light of above discussion, it can be said that the use of culture as a diplomatic tool by India does not have a bleak future, but India has to face challenges and solve them in order to make intensified use of cultural diplomacy which is a sub-variant of soft power, as unlike hard power even intensified use of soft power will not spur the anger of other powerful countries because it does not involve coercion or the use of military arsenal to get other countries to move them in the direction of its interest (Pratab, 2015: 61). In post-cold War Era, pragmatist approach of India toward international system lead to New Delhi use smart power and cultural diplomacy has important role in this view. For instance, while India is not member of Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), but emphasis on global disarmament and utilize native music, Bollywood, and its culture to show the dangers of nuclear proliferation. However, India is situated to some issue in its foreign policy like Kashmir crisis and relations with Israel. Kashmir crisis damage the India’s peaceful feature. Also, Israel does not any positive feature among Muslims and many nations in the world, thus, the India-Israeli relation mar the prestige of New Delhi.
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