عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the masterpieces of the Persian Literature in India, during Jahangir era –The Mongol King- is the story of Esmat Nameh or Mina and Lork. Therefore, the clarification of the manner and analysis of the structure of the fictional elements in the epic poem, Esmat Nameh, written by Abdolhamid Kalanvari, are among the central questions in this study. In the current study, which was conducted using descriptive and content analysis methods, comprehensive and clear definitions are offered regarding the constituent elements of the story such as the plot and its components, characterization, theme, point of view, tone, conversation and setting, and the rules governing the structure of the story of Esmat Nameh, and such elements were analyzed. Considering the evidence, we concluded that the fictional elements have been employed very effectively for advancing the story and a plot, based on causal relationships, has linked such elements together from the beginning to the end of the story. The plot is simple yet coherent, and the author’s viewpoint in narrating the events is derived from the native facts and customs. The emotional basis of the plot is a love story which is one of the effective factors in making the story appealing. The most important fictional element in this story is the characterization and the effect of the theme on other elements is well obvious.
The analysis of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem is the subject of this study. The authors offer comprehensive and clear definitions of the constituent elements of the structure of the story such as the plot and its components, characterization, theme, point of view, tone, conversation and setting, and the rules governing the structure of the story of Esmat Nameh and such elements will be analyzed. The word story is generally used to refer to all forms and styles of story writing. “Popular fiction is also used to refer to all fictional, entertaining and informative narratives which are common among people as prose, poetry, written or as prose alongside the formal literature” (Zolfaghari, 2015: 72).
India is one of the richest countries in the world with respect to the fictional literature and Esmat Nameh is an epic poem written by an Indian writer, which is unique in structure, and the study of the poem is conditioned upon the study of the constituent elements and understanding the relation among the components. The basis for analyzing any story is based on the fictional elements. The fictional elements which play a pivotal role in evaluating a work include: plot and its components, setting, tone, theme, and the verisimilitude which is the intellectual basis of the stories, either prose or poetry. The quality of the use of the constituent elements of the story make the reader enjoy the literary work and order their thoughts in a way to reach the writer’s ultimate goals. Study of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh, introduction to the fictional elements and study of the effects of employing fictional elements in Esmat Nameh are among the aims of this study.
The research questions include the following: 1. How does Abdolhamid Kalanvari employ the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem? 2. What are the plot components in Esmar Nameh epic poem? 3. What is the main fictional element in Esmat Nameh? 4. What is the theme of Esmat Nameh?
The necessity and significance of this study is the discovery of story writing techniques as well as the quality of the use of elements, which are in turn the reasons for an accurate understanding of the story, arranging the reader’s thoughts to reach the writer’s ultimate goal and reaching a literary enjoyment.
2. Research Method
The method of research in this study is descriptive and based on content analysis of Esmat Nameh epic poem. The theoretical resources of this study consist of the resources for criticism and analysis of fictional literature and the poems in the epic poem of Esmat Nameh, written by Abdoljamid Kalantari, constitute the sample of the study. The data have been collected and classified through library research method and the results have been classified based on inductive reasoning from part to whole. The evidence in Esmat Nameh demonstrated that the fictional elements have been employed effectively for advancing the story and they are reinforced from the beginning to the end of the story by a plot based on causal relations.
One of the masterpieces of the Persian Literature during Jahangir era –The Mongol King of India- is the story of Esmat Nameh or Mina and Lork. It is one of the oral romantic stories and myths of India which was first composed into Indian poetry, as Mina and Lork, by Moulana Dawood in 622 Hijri. It is also known as Mina and Satin and Chendayen, as well as Lork and Chenda. Later, a writer named Sadan and then a poet named Abdolghodus Gongoohi, wrote it into Persian poetry, which is not available now; it is also known as Roshd Nameh. Later in 1016 Hijri, Abdolhamid Kalanvari collected it into Persian poetry and titled it Esmat Nameh. The summary of the story is as follows:
Mina is a beautiful daughter of one of the Indian kings. Lork, her husband, has fallen in love with another woman, named Chenda; he abandons Mina, and she is constantly in great distress due to this separation. Another young man, named Satin, falls in love with Mina. Since he cannot directly express his heartfelt feelings to Mina, he lures a procuress to do so by giving her some money. According to the Hindus’ rituals and traditions (Baramasi), Mina must react to his husband’s separation during the twelve months and three seasons of rain, winter and summer, and during this period, she is constantly subject to the temptations put in her way by the procuress to forget her husband. However, she does not forget her vow as a result of her love and affection for her husband as well as her feminine modesty and chastity, and does not accept the love of Satin. Thanks to the patience of Mina, the will of God helps her and Chenda, Satin’s love, dies and he comes back to his first wife, Mina, and Mina is rewarded for her chastity, purity and patience (Kalanvari, 1985: 1-41).
Epic poems are a record of morality, culture, tradition, national and ethnic history. A better study of such works help better preserve and propagate them. The evaluation and analysis of each story is based upon the fictional elements, some of which we will point out. The plot signifies the foundation and basics of the design and structure of events. In fact, “plot is the dynamic part of a narrative, since the development and advancement of the story take place through the plot” (Okhovat, 1992: 85) and “it organizes the theme, events, characterization, time, location and setting of the story and gives artistic unity to the work” (Roozbeh, 1987: 33). This epic poem has a simple, coherent and strong plot which is linear and is often short as cuts of the protagonist’s life; and the majority of the short and semi-long popular stories are the same. The events of the story have a causal relationship and they are not intertwined and vague.
The conversations in the story are the sentences exchanged as dialogues between the protagonist (Mina) and the procuress, and they cover a big part of the story; since the most important responsibility of the procuress is to encourage Mina to marry Satin.
The setting of the story is India and the historical period is Jahangir era as mentioned before. The time the story took place is not exactly known, and the story might have taken place at any time. In general, the story setting is a closed and restricted setting and the time of the events have been stated generally, and the time passing is described by passing of the months. Sunrise in Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo (refer to Kalanvari; 1985: 19-35).
The study of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem, written by Abdolhamid Kalanvari, indicated that: the writer has established a good relationship among the fictional elements including the plot, characterization, setting, mood, and their link to the verisimilitude, and strengthened the relationship between the structure and the content. The writer’s viewpoint in narrating the story is derived from native traditions and facts and is based on observations and experiences. The appellation of the story, Esmat Nameh, shows that the writer took into consideration the whole poem and by this choice of name, has tried to familiarize the reader with the basic subject of the story. The beginning of the story is attractive as in the romantic and classic stories. The theme of the story has a simple yet solid structure and is based on causal relations. The fictional elements and structures including the fictional events, nodes and crises, suspension, conflict and resolution have been employed properly in the story; the plot is explanatory, and the protagonist is highlighted more than the fictional events. The emotional basis of the plot is a love story as well as the obstacles in the way of the lover and the beloved which are the factors effective in attracting the readers. The characters of the story are also remarkable. The protagonist (Mina) is a princess and a lover who has a stable, introvert and positive character. She is a role model as a perfect lover and an example of a traditional, good and modest woman. The point of view is the third person omniscient through the whole story. The theme of the story is “love and affection”; however, there are also ethical, mystic and cultural (stating the rites and rituals) themes. The writer adopts two approaches; one is the value-oriented approach towards love, chastity and purity and the other is the social and moral culture of the society he lives in. The tone of the story does not vary much because there are not many characters in the story. The tone of the story in description and expression of emotions and feelings is romantic and sometimes the burning and griefs of love; complaint of the life; infidelity and separation of the beloved render a sad and melancholic tone. Generally, the setting of the story is restricted and closed, the time the events take place have been stated vaguely, and the setting is in India. The poet is competent and precise in describing the scenery, events and characters and this signifies his proficiency. Since the content is real, the events and characters are believable so that the reader is depressed with their grief and happy with their happiness. At the end, the protagonist joins her beloved and the story has a happy ending for the protagonist.
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