عنوان مقاله [English]
Vajrayana is a kind of Magical Religions Buddhism . in Vajrayana Mandala is one of important doctrine. in this research our porpuse is showing Importance of mandala and its epistemological role in travelling in the vajrayana. Mandala in Vajrayana way is a ritual symbol that showe the presence of god and way of eternity and absolute. This eternal face in Vajrayana showe the relation between macrocosm and microcosm. In fact in Vajrayana Way though the mandala can be understand the low dwon according the understanding of gods. Mandala in ritual symbol and travelling and thought concerning absolute in the vajrayana has a basic role. In Travelling in Vajrayana way the porpuse of mystic is attainment to centric mandala and unity with principal god. The finding of the research show that mandala determine the way of travelling and sacred environment and preserve its from non cosmic saktas . the presence in the sacred environment In Travelling in Vajrayana allow to burble to call cosmic factors and embay the evil factors. Finally burble though contemplation and thought redeem from material world and attaine to moksa and the understanding of eternity and absolute. this research has been provided with descriptive-analytic method, by citing firsthand and classical texts.
Vajrayana is one of the most mysterious forms of Buddhist practices and intellectual traditions whose followers hold different kinds of rites and ceremonies to reach salvation. In these ceremonies, they benefit from a variety of signs and symbols. Among them is Mandala which is one of the most important symbols in achieving salvation and has a high position in transcendental and religious rites.
Some of the questions that we presented here and tried to provide appropriate answers are:
1) What is the semantic realm of Mandala and its role in Vajrayana tradition?
2) What is the epistemological role of Mandala in Mystical Travel in Vajrayana practice?
3) What Mandala symbols are there in Vajrayana tradition?
The importance of this study arises from the significance and credibility of Mandala and its epistemological role in stages of mystical journey and methodology of comparative mysticism. Besides, the lack of a study would examine Mandala in Vajrayana and could determine its realm in mystical Journal emphasizes its importance.
This study is carried out in a descriptive-analytical method and is documented by original books and sources from libraries. It is also based on classical texts.
The term “Mandala” literally means “circle” and it has a high position in mysticism and the ceremonial and religious rites of various religions, especially Hinduism, Buddhism and Vajrayana practice (Saunders, Buddhist Mandala, 1987:9/155). But, idiomatically, it is a visual symbol that includes some concentric or multicentric circles surrounded by a square. It has four gates in four main directions, and its center is the position of the central god who is usually accompanied by his wife. In each of four directions, four Buddhas are placed, each of which accompanied by his goddess. The other circles represent Bodhisattvas and the low-ranked gods. As the distance of godsfrom the center increases, their credibility and importance reduce. In the center of Mandala, there might be images of gods or their signs or images of lilies. Also, it is possible that an image or figure of Buddha is placed in the center to represent the ritual sex of Shiva and Shakti. The component elements of Mandala are symbolic and reflect the mortality of the worldly life and the temporariness of human lifespan (Conze, 1993:65-6). The central point of Mandala is the origin from which everything emanates and returns to. What is essential in Mandala’s image in eastern mystical traditions is the central point, and the goal of the yogi is to reach it.
In Vajrayana practice, Mandala mainly means the realm of a god who is in the center, and its various parts belong to various gods, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. It reflects the world in accordance with a deep cognitive perception of gods. Mandala is both a domicile for them and a reference to those that reside in it (Williams, 2002: 227-8). Therefore, Mandalain Vajrayana thought creates a sacred area and protects it against parsing forces. It is an area that should be kept pure for ritual and benedictory purposes.
There are different symbols of Mandala in Vajrayana practice. Among them are Yantra, Temple, Mudra, Man, and so on. The human body is the most superior kind of Mandala because Mandala represents the relations between the major and the minor worlds; that is, between the universe and the human body. Since the human body represents the cosmos and yogi unites himself to god by it in order to activate his latent divine forces and reach the joining stage, the body and its different levels are considered as a Mandala that is embedded in human nature. This type of Mandala can only be created by Yogis. The body Mandala has special characteristics that help the wayfarers achieve salvation through observing the ultimate truth. For this reason, it is the most sacred type of Mandala.
Vajrayana is the third cycle of Buddhist thought and one of the most complicated types of religious traditions in East. The followers and proponents of Vajrayana practice hold different rites and ceremonies to reach the truth. In these ceremonies, various kinds of symbols and signs are used to show the truth. Mandala is one of those symbols and signs. The results of this study indicate that Mandala is one of the symbols that have a high position in meditations and transcendental rites. And it is ultimately a way to reach salvation.
The main question of this study associates with the semantic realm of Mandala and its role in Vajrayana practice. To answer this question, it should be pointed out that Mandala is a Sanskrit word meaning “circle”. Idiomatically, it refers to a set of concentric or multicentric circles surrounded by a square. At the same time, it depicts an image of the universe and the secret temple of all gods as well as the four main directions. In Vajrayana tradition, Mandala is a place where the main god is located in the center. It is the domicile of gods as well as a reference to gods, Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The fundamental part of Mandala is the central point or the point of creation which is the descension place of universe axis. Whosoever reaches it, he will associate with the basis of the universe which is the connection point of human’s origin and the universe.
The second question is concerned with what religious and mystical interpretations of Mandala are presented. The answer is that Mandala in Vajra practice is a religious and mystical symbol that acknowledges representation as existence. It’s both a representation of truth and the way of truth. For this reason, Mandala is the main point of journey in the way of Vajra, and each of its circles represents one of the stages and levels of Vajra practice. Consequently, the wayfarer (seeker) needs to pass them one after the other to reach the joining position.
The last question of the study deals with those symbols of Mandala which are used in Vajrayana tradition. To answer this question it needs to be said that there are different forms and kinds of Mandala among which we can refer to Yantra, map of the Universe, Chakra, temple and the human body. The human body is the most superior type of Mandala because Mandala represents the relations between the major and the minor worlds. Therefore, Yogi inspects the regression of creation in his own existence and creates Mandala in his body by his particular attitude toward the universe. This shows the dissociation from the minor world and unity with the main origin.
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