هدف از انجام این تحقیق، مقایسه تطبیقی مولفه های توسعه پایدار و احقاق حقوق شهروندی در ایران و افغانستان می باشد که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده است. در خلال سال های گذشته تلاش های بسیار زیادی از سوی صاحب نظران برای اندازه گیری توسعه در غالب شاخص های متعدد صورت گرفته است. به دست آوردن افکار و حمایت عمومی دیگر به آسانی گذشته نیست و برای آن باید با تمام توان تلاش کرد.بر این اساس با توجه به پیچیدگی ذاتی و ابعاد مختلف مولفه های توسعه پایدار در تحقق حقوق شهروندی و تاثیرگذاری آنها، شناخت عوامل اصلی و کلیدی در جهت دست یابی به پایداری ، ضروری به نظر می رسد. سوال اصلی تحقیق این است که مولفه های توسعه پایدار و از جمله حقوق شهروندی در ایران و افغانستان چه می باشد؟.باتوجه به بررسی های صورت گرفته می توان نتیجه گرفت که در بلند مدت آزادی اقتصادی و سیاسی لازم و ملزوم یکدیگر بوده و توسعه اقتصادی پایدار مستلزم آزادی اقتصادی و هم آزادی سیاسی است. تجربه نوسازی سیاسی و توسعه اقتصادی ایران در سده گذشته به ویژه در چند سال اخیروکاهش ولواندک تنش ها وتوجهات به محورانسان درافغانستان ، گواه روشنی است بر این حکم ،که در کل بین تمامی متغیرها و مخصوصا آموزش عالی وتربیت نیروی متخصص ومجرب وثبات نظام درکشورهای ایران وافغانستان رابطه وجود دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative Comparison of the Components of Sustainable Development and the Recognition of Citizenship Rights in Iran and Afghanistan
The purpose of this research is comparative comparisons of the components of sustainable development and the recognition of citizenship rights in Iran and Afghanistan, which has been conducted through a descriptive-analytical method. Measurement and measurement of development has always been one of the most important issues of interest to many economic and development experts as well as policymakers and planners. Because every country wants to know its position as compared to other countries in terms of development and economic growth and its trends over the past years. For this reason, over the past years, many efforts have been made by experts to measure development in most of the indicators. Voting for sustainable development there are several ways in which regional management exists, and this management can be effective when accompanied with public acceptance and transparency. With the development of communications and the instantaneous awareness of human beings about the events surrounding them, all governments and societies have inevitably faced with a transnational analogy that did not exist in the past. Therefore, gaining public opinion and other support is no longer easy, and it must be done with all its power.
Sustainable development is a development that addresses the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. If we accept that economic development is the process of improving the quality of life of all people, then economic growth will be the core of economic development. But economic growth is a sustainable process that increases the production capacity of the economy over time and increases the level of national income. The main components of sustainability in the semantic system of development can be considered as follows: first, economic sustainability (profitability), secondly, social sustainability (compatibility), environmental sustainability (non-degradation of ecosystems), and fourth, structural and organizational sustainability (having the authority and competence, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the management structure), the fifth technological sustainability (the appropriateness of technology) and the sixth balance sustainability (dynamic coordination) in sustainable development, one of the main areas emphasized and a fundamental role in the realization of sustainable development with institutional capacity. Institutionalism is not just about the methodology, approach, and theory of studying political institutions. In fact, institutional analysis in contemporary studies of political science and government involves, on the one hand, legal constitutional investigations, and, on the other hand, the domain of the state administration. (Bahram zadeh, 2003)
In Iran, the rights of citizens in the basic Law have conferred 120 articles, the rights of whose consistency and lack thereof cause the loss of a person or personality. Modern welfare is the fourfold of a lawyer, duty, partnership and security. (Gholipour, 2010, 71)
In Afghanistan, civil rights mean the residence of a country for a specified period, meaning a collection of individual and social legal information. (Fayez, 28, 2013)
-Reporting the Components of Sustainable Development in Respect of Citizenship Rights in Iran and Afghanistan
-Setting the characteristics and components of sustainable development
what are the components of sustainable development and civil rights in Iran and Afghanistan?
How can the components of sustainable development and citizenship rights be realized in these two countries?
the present research is descriptive-analytic. It describes the issue of the subject in a descriptive way, and the requirements of the subject are analyzed. In this research, the library method is used and the resources are digested by not taking.
In order to compare the components of sustainable development and citizenship rights in Iran and Afghanistan, the following items were collected and derived.
Among the indicators of sustainable development and citizenship rights in Iran can be mentioned: (Bahram zadeh, 2003, 45)
1-Education and University2-Industry3-Government4-Knowledge5-Communication
One of the problems of education and university in the lack of development of countries can be seen in the inefficiency of methods and quality of education, the solution to which can be found in the “learning styles" in the first step. (Sa’ee1995: 127)
Industrialization is known as the best way to put an end to technical and economic retardation in the shortest possible time with the least dependence on the outside and a means to change the traditional social relations of the society and the application of scientific and technological achievements in order to increase productivity of production and work efficiency,. (Tadayon, 2005, 89)
The continuation of the current conditions and direction of knowledge ultimately will divide the world into the "conscious world, the unknowing world, the world of the scientist and the world of workers” (Aligholian, 2006, p. 97), while many thinkers and brains of the backward countries have a major contribution to the production of this knowledge.
The phenomenon of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), due to the wide range of capabilities and potential has provided the appropriate conditions for the utilization of technology in all aspects of human life (Taqavi, 85/2017)
Indicators of sustainable development in Afghanistan include:
1) Elimination of poverty 2) Elimination of hunger 3) Weight loss 4) Quality education 5) Gender equality
6. Clean water or access to safe drinking water. 7. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
8. Reducing inequality9-Sustainable cities and communities’ 10-Production and consumption by authorities
Sustainable development is human-centered and, given the wide range of topics and capabilities, has quickly become one of the most important current debates and one of the 21st century's most important challenges. In the third millennium, the process of growth and development was restored within the framework of sustainability. In sustainable development, humans are the focus of development and deserve the health, security, culture, education, knowledge and development of communications and information.
Achieving a number of these indicators suggests that the government of Afghanistan, contrary to its critics' comments, has not only addressed the affairs of the state, but wants to abandon its legal mandate. In the absence of a healthy administrative system that Afghanistan has experienced for many years, such achievements are not achieved anyway, but it should be said that the Afghan government still has a long way to go and meet the Millennium Development Goals. Regular scheduling and transparent operation Government agents can make these indicators accessible to the country.
In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, Afghanistan needs to determine its degree of influence in order to develop a strategy based on the level of influence. It also fights for widespread corruption so that it can implement the strategy. The change in intellectual dominant discourse is another issue that the Afghan government must pay attention to. If a single discourse is not at least dominant in the functioning of the state, development will be impossible. In Iranian society, two main factors influencing the failure to establish a social contract for sustainable development were: first, "Iran" is not focused on the thoughts of some statesmen and, consequently, on them. Rather than thinking and planning to serve a better life, sometimes decisions in the field of foreign affairs, and even domestic issues, have not been focused on Iran. The second factor is the lack of understanding between citizens. Social understanding takes place in order to reach the point of development in which all the communities in the society can speak and social contract can be formed, which, of course, can be found in an evolutionary aspect in which the role of the social thinkers and the departure of their own islands of thought is inevitable. In some historical periods, we have witnessed the lack of parallelism in the path of the movement of scholars, academics and elites with the realities and distance from the Iranian society. In order to achieve sustainable development, the fundamental laws of the countries, including the constitution of our country, especially Article 26 Recognition of the
formation and activities of parties and Civic engagement enables citizens to share with each other common cultural, political, and economic aspirations, and, as a massive mass, to strive to pursue their citizenship in a variety of scenes. Also under Article 27 of the Constitution, when expressing demands or objections or defending their citizenship rights, they are permitted to form civil society organizations to attract public opinion to observe and protect their legal rights.
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