معناشناسی حضرات خمس در عرفان اسلامی و تری کایه در مهایانه بودایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار ادیان و عرفان تطبیقی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 کارشناس ارشد ادیان و عرفان تطبیقی دانشگاه شهرکرد

10.22111/jsr.2020.5555

چکیده

در مطالعات تطبیقی ادیان و مکاتب عرفانی مختلف اصطلاحاتی به کار می رود که با وجود اختلاف زبانی می­توانند دارای تشابهات زیادی باشند. مفاهیم تری­کایه ((Trikaya در مهایانه بودائی و حضرات خمس در عرفان اسلامی از جمله این اصطلاحات هستند. بحث جهان شناسی عرفانی و چگونگی سلسه مراتب هستی در مکاتب عرفانی از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. دو مفهوم حضرات خمس در عرفان اسلامی و تری کایه در آئین مهایانه بودایی از مهم ترین مفاهیمی است که برای تبیین مراتب هستی و تجلیات حقیقت در این مراتب هستی مطرح شده است.سئوال اصلی در این پژوهش اینست که با توجه به اینکه مفهوم خداوند به معنای مصطلح آن در آموزه های بودا بصورت صریح مطرح نشده و مفاهیم تری کایه نیز بعد از بودا در فرقه مهایانه مطرح شده است،چگونه می توان مراتب بودهی ستوه، نیروانه، دهرمه کایه، نیرمایه کایه و سم بوگه کایه را  از آموزه های مکتب مهایانه با مراتب جبروت، لاهوت، هاهوت، ملکوت و ناسوت در عرفان اسلامی با در نظر گرفتن جنبه های تمایز و تشابه مورد مقایسه قرار داد؟ و این مسأله را که حقیقت واحد برای ظهور و حضور خود در عالم، تجلیات خاص خود را دارد در این دو مکتب با روش تحلیل مقایسه­ای تبیین کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The semantics of the five presences in the Islamic mysticism and the Trikhaya in Mahayaneh Buddhist

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Khajegir 1
  • sarvnaz heidary 2
1 Assistant professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, university of shahrekord.
2 M.A Student of Persian Language and Literature Dept,University of shahrekord
چکیده [English]

 
1-     Introduction
Islamic mysticism and Hindu mysticism in general and Buddhist mysticism in particular, although originating from two completely different schools and having evolved over time, have been fertile, since mysticism no matter which school or land it has roots in the inner of human truth and the mystics have been in search of the same truth, so in these two seemingly alien mystics there are many commonalities that tell of their inner altruism. In Islamic mysticism, the concept of the five presences is very important for the expression of the hierarchy of mysticism and cosmology, and in mystical Buddhist mysticism the term trikaya or three bodies is very important. The five presences in Islamic mysticism is the general hierarchy of the manifestation of the divine manifestations, and the trikaya in the Buddhist Mahayana expresses the hierarchy of the Buddhist truth in the universe. Although in early Buddhism theology there is no theology in the appearance of belief in a specific god, the nirvana issue is a true and transcendent truth, and the Buddhist religion is the embodied nirvana. And this is the aspect of Buddhism that has religious and mystical color. Because the concept of nirvana is somehow related to the concept of dharmakaya, which is the highest degree of the dharmakaya.
The main purpose of this article is to examine the manifestation and emergence of a single truth in Buddhist mahayana and Islamic mysticism. On this basis, we first explain the  two basic concepts of the five presences  in the Islamic mysticism and the trikaya in the Buddhist mysticism, and then we have expressed the manifestation and emergence of a single truth in the universe. At the end we have compared the degrees and manifestations of the transcendent truth in both Islamic and Buddhist mysticism and we have highlighted their differentiation and commonalities.
 
2-     Research methodology
The research method used in this study is comparative analysis according to the type of subject and the data gathering tool is library based, so that the required data is collected through study and retrieval of books and related articles according to the chapters. The specification has been analyzed.
 
3-     Discussion
The alignment of the system of existence is one of the most important issues that are discussed in the context of the unity of existence and the justification of the multiplication of the universe. This argument, along with its ontological dimension, is the mystics attempt to understand the universe. In Islamic mysticism, the universal hierarchy that is the place of manifestations and manifestations of righteousness forms the five worlds that are termed "presences" in the mystic language. According Ibn Arabi, truth in its realization is a mystery completely unreachable and inaccessible far beyond human knowledge, and the emergence of being is also manifested through manifestation.(Izutsu,1984,p.27) Although the doctrine of the five presences can be interpreted in several ways. It is widely known that these events include the worlds of divinity, divine empire, angelic world, corporeal world and the perfect human being. Regarding the levels of the five presences, what is important in regard is that the existence of each degree has been issued from the higher degree and emerged, and all of then originate from the first degree, namely, the essence of the truth. In fact, there are all aspects of the existence, manifestation and appearance of the existence. Therefore, levels of existence are not only discrete things, but they have a deep link with each other, because there is only one being that has infinite manifestations. So whatever in the universe is an example of something in the universe
According to the theory of three bodies, which is in fact the spiritual frame of Mahayana, these three buddhas bodies consist of three bodies of the dharmakaya, sambogakaya, nirmamakaya. This is one of the main differences between the Buddha's personality and Buddhism, which is not, in my opinion, Buddha a historical determinant, but the ultimate cause of objects or the cause of the cosmic alliance. (Dasgupta,1950;p.12) Therefore, the first dharmakaya is the essence of everything, and every creature possesses it, secondly, the peak point is a salvation and Buddhist. Since creatures can not understand the dharmakaya except for the spiritual experience, for creature such as bodhisattva, the form of sambhogakaya, and for ordinary creatures it is a form nirmanakaya. But the nature of both is composed of dharmakaya. This invisible and absolute body does not disappear, all living things in it are moving, and their existence is from him. All Buddhists in this unique Buddha dharmakaya are the only one, in fact dharmakaya position of unity is indeterminate. (Pashaei,2001;p.334)
 
           
4-     Conclusion
These five universes are counted with the three Buddha's and the contemplative and nirvana concepts. As  divinity the nature of holy and purified entity of the truth to excellence with the concept of nirvana with Mahayana means the pure and transcendental essence of the convergence, and the degree of divine aspect with the first body of Buddha, namely, dharmakaya, because both the first truth as best even though they contain others are matched. In fact, dharmakaya is the position of unity, indeterminacy, and in the so-called Mahayana empliness (shunyata). Shunyata in the word means null or empty, a central concept in Buddhism. Therefore, the first dharmakaya is the essence of everything, and every creature possesses it, secondly, the peak point is a salvation and Buddhist. Since creatures can not understand the dharmakaya except for the spiritual experience, for creature such as bodhisattva, the form of sambhogakaya, and for ordinary creatures it is a form nirmanakaya. But the nature of both is composed of dharmakaya. This invisible and absolute body does not disappear, all living things in it are moving, and their existence is from him.
The degree of the divine empire and the world of devil's spirits are similar to that the bodhisattva, because they are like dead spirits and cherubims are creatures that seek to enlighten people to reach people, and their purpose is to make people happy. The world of angelic world or universe is an example, as already said, this world is the mediator of the universe of matter and matter, and the distance between the ghosts and bodies. From this point of view, sambhogakaya is like, because sambhogakaya in the Mahayana in the middle of the stage interface is between dharmakaya and nirmanakaya. In the end, the corporeal world is similar to that of nirmanakaya for it is the same physical and material manifestation of the Buddha that goes into the realm of existence, like the human being in the universe and matter, which is the universe of bodies and the level of senses and senses.                                
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trikaya
  • The five divine presence
  • Transcendental essence
  • universe levels
  • Mahayana
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