یکی از دورههای مهم فرهنگ ایرانی دورۀ صفویه است؛ در این دوره، تبادلات فکری و فرهنگی موثری بین فرهنگ ایرانی و فرهنگ شبه قارۀ هند، وجود داشته است. از سویی تاثیر شبه قاره بر فرهنگ ایرانی در اصطلاحاتی همانند «سبک هندی» آشکار است و از سو دیگر، بسیاری از شاعران ایرانی در دربارهای هند نقش مهمی در پرورش تفکر و زبان فارسی در شبهقاره داشتهاند. این تاثیر و تاثرها جزیی جداییناپذیر از فرهنگ دورۀ صفوی است. هدف این مقاله، شناخت بهتر پیوندهای فرهنگ شبه قاره و ایران در دورهای خاص است و بر این مبنا، یکی از سوالات این تحقیق، چگونگی تاثیر و تاثر فرهنگ ایرانی و هندی و پیگیری آن در شعر و معماری این دوره با تاکید بر اشعار صائب است. دیگر اینکه چه ویژگیهای مشترکی بین معماری و شعر این دوره قابل شناسایی است. بنابراین این مقاله، با روش تحلیل مقایسهای، به پنج مورد مشترک در هر دو هنر میپردازد و نمونههایی برای آنها ذکر میکند. این پنج مورد عبارتند از: توجه به جزییات دقیق، قرینهسازی، استفاده از رنگهای متباین، تزیینات و عدم نوآوری و تقلید، از جملۀ این موارد هستند که در این مقاله بررسی شدهاند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the Common Characteristics of Indian Style Poetry with Safavid Architecture, Relying on Saeb Tabrizi's poems
The Safavid era in Iranian art, culture, and literature is a special era. Both Because of the centralization of government during this period, relations with other countries were established in various fields, and also after the mogul invasion, Iran revised its remaining cultural traditions.
Around the Safavid period, Indian or Isfahan style poetry has special features that distinguishes it completely from its before and after poetic styles. Art and architecture of this period is also very important. In architecture, on one hand, we see buildings in Iran that are fundamentally different from those of previous eras, and on the other hand, we see masterpieces in subcontinent architecture that are clearly influenced by Iranian architecture. In this article in particular, the question of the possibility of matching and comparing the art of this period based on architecture and poetry (with emphasis on Saeb's poetry) is addressed, and there are some questions on this basis. Are there any significant commonalities between the various disciplines of art during the Safavid period, and if so, in what fields there are more similarities?
The purpose of this study is, firstly, a comparative and interdisciplinary study of artistic and cultural phenomena in a particular period of Iranian culture, based on the need to think better for the present and future of Iranian culture, you need to understand Iranian culture in the past. Through this research we can also find deep links between rich Iranian and Indian culture; in the next step the purpose of this research is to compare the analytical architecture and Indian style poetry (with emphasis on Saeb poetry) and to show common and comparable cases.
This article deals with the general features of Iranian architecture and poetry of the Safavid period by using a comparative analysis method and using library tools to assist in the discussion of the article. On this basis, it was attempted to compare these works with the study of poetic texts, especially Saeb's poetry, and the architectural monuments left over from this period.
The corresponding features of Safavid poetry and architecture
fragmentation in Safavid Poetry and Architecture: fragmentation, which has a history in Persian literature, became an independent feature in Indian style, and the true form of poetry in this period was "couplet" or single couplet. In the architecture of this period, one of the main features is the details of the designs. These designs look much more vibrant, crowded and delicate than in the Timurid period (Makkinejad , 2009: 42-43).
Symmetry in Architecture / Equation Style (Osloub e Mo'adele) in Poetry: Just as symmetry is one of the main features of Safavid architecture (Blair, 2009: 491), in Indian style poetry, the style of the equation style can be mentioned.
Decorations in Architecture / Subtlety in Poetry (Complexity): Decoration is an essential feature of Eastern and Iranian architecture and has nothing to do with the whole. It is said that Islamic art is first and foremost a decorative art (Hoag & Martin, 2007: 227). But this feature has been used in the Safavid architecture even beyond its usual norm. Such a situation in architecture is very similar to the poetry of the poets of this period who were more or less concerned with the appropriateness of their vocabulary, and were reluctant to lose the clarity of meaning by doing so. Subtlety, too, and the creation of strange, out-of-the-mind meanings in poetry, can also be relevant to decorations in architecture.
Colors and Mirroring in Architecture / Flame, Fire, Mirror, Sparkle, ... In Poetry: In the Safavid architecture, the appropriate contrast of specific colors has made the designs and patterns more attractive and better on the tiling surfaces (Makkinejad: 2009: 45).The use of mirrors in the ornamentation of this period is probably also for this purpose. In the poetry of this period, the word mirrors are of high frequency and are one of the thematic elements in poetry. As for the color, there are very few odes which somehow not to associate with colors (especially red) (Musavi et al., 2011:67).
Architecture Restoration / Imitation in Poetry: The Safavid period is said to be the culmination of the latest manifestation of Islamic architecture in Iran, but no innovations can be found in it (Pope, No date: 249). In its entirety, this periode is nothing but a revision of the Persian literary tradition and its recent presentation in all its dimensions.
After Timur and Shahrokh, the courts of Mughal in India, for many years, were engaged in hospitality of the artists, and poets from Iran were drawn to the court. Subsequently, a subsurfaceand flow have linked the two cultures of the Safavid and Indian periods. Although the art of the Safavid era cannot explicitly speak of the influence of the subcontinent on Iranian culture, there is some evidence in the art and literature of this period that the art of the Indian Mughal courts was close to the Safavid court. In poetry and architecture as two important manifestations of Safavid art, there are common signs presented in different forms. It seems that these commonalities are due to certain discourses that existed at that time. In the architecture of the Safavid period, especially the influence of Mughal art is remarkable. On the other hand, the Timurid courtiers in India were also shelters for Iranian poets, who influenced Persian poetry by taking influence from this courts. According to the reviews of this article, the architecture and poetry of this period can be compared in terms of features.
Fragmentation, as one of the hallmarks of Iranian poetry, culminated in this period, with the form of "couplet" emerging and at the same couplets having two independent connotations. There is also a great deal of evidence in the architecture of this period, which suggests that attention to detail has given rise to a particular style of Safavid architecture.
Mirroring the architecture of this period and the style of the equation is another comparable feature in the art of this period; unique examples of symmetry in architecture of this period can be seen to correspond to the style of the equation in poetry, which is one of the most important features of the poetry of this period.
One of the most important features of Indian style poetry is the delicate and subtle themes of the poem. This style of poetry, which has become a kind of hub among the poetry of Indian style poets, can be attributed to the character of very fine and delicate decorations and the use of glazed tiles in the architecture of this period, which was unprecedented in Iranian architecture.
If in the poetry of this period, the vocabulary model such as mirrors, sparks, flames, sparkle, etc. draws the reader's attention and distinguishes this style from other poetic styles in the use of these words, in the architecture of this period, use of matching colors and a wide range of colors as well as mirroring the buildings are a stylistic feature.
Also, as in the extensive architectures of this period, with the exception of the major city buildings, the restoration of old buildings is important, in poems of this period, imitation is common and attracts attention.
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