عنوان مقاله [English]
Return-tie is one of the Persian poetry formats that has an ancient background. Although some have speculated on the earliest return-tie for the Samani era (Mahjoub, b. 159), the earliest return-ties are in the Divine Farrokhi Sistani (d. 429 AH), the great poet of the fourth and fifth centuries. The grace and sweetness of Farrokhi's language and the fascinating structure of his return-ties have led poets to different themes such as praise, prayer, description, love and mysticism, and even they profit to explain their social and patriotic ideas.
Return-ties like other forms of poetry have always been of interest to poets throughout the days and have used it to express various ideas, feelings, and emotions, either creatively or imitatively, sometimes in weight and sometimes in context and sometimes the number of verses in each paragraph have changed. As Saadi (690-606 AH) in the writing of his return-ties was almost influenced by the composite-tie of Jamal al-Din Abdo-Razzagh Isfahani (p: 588 AH) in terms of form, shape, and even weight, but the subject has changed or Hatef Isfahani (1198 AH), in other weight and content, but with a gentle, simple and intimate language and expression reminiscent of Saadi's poetic language and expression, made his return-ties. But the Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi (1113-1048 AH) did not go beyond imitation and were heavily influenced by Saadi's return-tie for weight, content, and structure. The only notable point in this regard is the difference in tone and type of expression, which is a matter of feminine emotions and feelings in Makhfi return-tie regarding gender. Considering the influence of Saadi on Zeibo-Nesa on this subject, this study attempts to analyze and analyze his return-ties based on the intertextual approach of affect anxiety.
2- Research methodology
In this study, two return-ties of Zeibo-Nesa were studied in a descriptive-analytic manner based on Harold Bloom's intertextual anxiety theory approach and the effect of Saadi's love return-ties on Zeibo-Nesa from the point of form, structure and context was investigated and his influence on the composite-tie of Jamaluddin Abdo-Razzagh Isfahani, which Saadi also influenced in his return-tie, has been mentioned.
Saadi is one of the most capable poets and writers in Persian that nobody has managed to escape the spell of magic and the influence of his magic. Not only in the field of sonnet, but also in other realms of poetry, he is also the master of his poetry. His beautiful return-tie, which is one of the masterpieces of Persian literature, has influenced Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi, the capable poet of the land of India and has inspired him to imitate and exemplify it. Although Saadi was influenced by the composite-tie of Jamaluddin Isfahani in his songwriting return-ties, and in other words he was a consequence, he distanced himself from the domination or anxiety of Jamaluddin's influence, where the father's poetry dictated For him, he has created an exquisite creation and creativity that has influenced poets after himself, for Bloom believes that "a true poet does not go down unless he overcomes the anxiety of his influence. (Namvar Motlagh: limat-letellier, 1998: 51).
Of course, the fact that Saadi's motive in composing his favorite song was the composite-tie of Jamaluddin Abdo-Razaq Isfahani does not diminish his status. Saadi has used this method extensively and has come into disagreement with former masters for frequent testing, as some have argued, in order to counter Shahnameh (see: Dashti, 2002: 172). Saadi sometimes likes the form and then uses it to express his thoughts and feelings, and because he has the ability to think and taste, the effect of this confrontation is lessened. He did so in his return-tie and changed the subject to some extent in place of the Prophet's (pbuh) prayer, which he repeatedly demonstrated in his other poems, his sincerity, his passion and richness in it. Zeibo-Nesa also addressed the Prophet's (pbuh) prayer in one of his second return-ties clauses, which is consistent with Jamal al-Din's composite-tie, but he appears to have been more influenced by Saadi's return-tie than the composite-tie of Jamaluddin. Perhaps the secret here is to use Bloom's interpretation of the "denial" defense mechanism. For "the late poet is suspended between originality and heredity. Heredity leads to inspiration and imitation of the former poet or father poet, but authenticity seeks to contain and diminish the influence of the former poet″ (Namvar Motlagh, 1395: 117). According to this theory, the Jamal-al-Din composite-tie is a father text and Saadi's return-tie is the child text. A child who, according to Oedipus complex, was able to take his father's place and rid himself of his dominion. So saadi's return-ties are considered as father's text that the poets after him,like Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi,influenced by him. Zeibo-Nesa return-ties are as child's text,the child who has two opposed relations of kinship and independence (the same,115). Zeibo-Nesa couldn’t rid herself of "anxiety of influence" or "impact anxiety". So she has remained in the place of a child. According to Bloom's theory that is "a return of literary history based on Oedip complex, the poets are like the boys who are suppressed by the fathers and live with anxiety relying on capable poet who is prior on them"(Igelton,1380: 252). Zeibo-Nesa is like a boy who is suppressed by father, live with anxiety relying on capable poet (Saadi) that is prior to her. This anxiety can be seen in form and meaning in her return-ties.
According to the theory of affect anxiety, Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi, an Indian poet, has been influenced by Saadi's lyricism in singing his return-ties, both in content and in appearance. Saadi's return-tie, although influenced by the composite-tie of Jamaluddin Abdo-Razagh Isfahani, is considered to be the child's own text, but by altering its structure and content, Saadi was able to overcome the anxiety of his influence and originality. And reach the indepenence. His return-ties as a father and noble text has received the attention of poets after him, including Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi. Although Makhfi in his influence of Saadi, he used the defense mechanism of denial, but did not achieve complete authenticity and independence and did not go beyond mere imitation and liberated himself from the influence of the poet of his father. The only difference is in the tone, the way they interpret and the way they look. The Makhfi tone is a sad and sorrowful tone, and his gaze is that of a distressed and suffering woman who is captive to the bonds of traditional and patriarchal society, grumbling and complaining about disregarding her self, In the meantime, he waits for his buyer to help him, or she experiences great suffering and choose silence. In addition to the dominance of Saadi's return-ties, the dominance of Isfahani's Jamaluddin Abdo-Razzagh's composite-tie influence can also be seen in Zeibo-Nesa Makhfi return-ties, so that each of his preferences in the 11 clauses or houses exactly matches the composite-tie of Jamal al-Din has been written and praised the Prophet (peace be upon him) in one of his verses.
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